They can wait and see whether this usually slow-moving cancer becomes a problem (called conservative therapy or watchful waiting). They can undergo radiation therapy and suffer its side effects. Or they can undergo androgen-deprivation therapy: hormonal drugs (Lupron, Viadur, Eligard, or Zoladex) or surgery (orchiectomy) that cut off production of male hormones.
In the U.S., older men often opt for stand-alone hormone therapy, even though there's no proof that it really helps. Hormone therapy's most obvious side effect is sexual dysfunction. Of greater concern are several recent studies linking androgen deprivation therapies to diabetes, heart disease, bone fractures, and reduced muscle mass.
Now a new study strongly suggests that hormone therapy offers older men no benefit to justify these serious risks.
Grace L. Lu-Yao, PhD, MPH, of the University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, and colleagues collected data on more than 19,000 men diagnosed with early-stage prostate cancer at an average age of 77. None of the men underwent surgery or radiation treatment for early prostate cancer. Nearly 8,000 of the men opted for androgen deprivation therapy.
"Use of hormone therapy does not improve survival," Lu-Yao tells WebMD. "The reason patients want this is they want something that will improve their quality of life or their survival. But hormone therapy has a detrimental effect on quality of life. And we cannot find any survival benefit for these men in their 70s with very early-stage cancer."
Why have so many U.S. men undergone an unproven treatment that now seems to do more harm than good?
"It's an American phenomenon," Otis Brawley, MD, chief medical officer for the American Cancer Society, tells WebMD. "The problem is that if a U.S. man has early-stage prostate cancer, both patients and doctors culturally feel that you have to do something. The end result is a number of men who should get conservative therapy get some kind of intervention."