Updated statistics with estimated new cases and deaths for 2013 (cited American Cancer Society as reference 1).
Updated statistics with age-specific probabilities of being diagnosed with prostate cancer in 2013.
Genes With Potential Clinical Relevance in Prostate Cancer Risk
This section was comprehensively reviewed and extensively revised.
Methods of Prostate Cancer Genetic Research
Added American Cancer Society as reference 4.
Added 2q37 to the list of chromosomal regions with modest-to-strong statistical significance (logarithm of the odds score ≥2) identified by genome-wide linkage studies of families with prostate cancer (cited Cropp et al. as reference 87).
Added text about a study of 10,501 prostate cancer cases and 10,831 controls from multiple cohorts who were genotyped for 25 prostate cancer risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); genotype data helped to discriminate those who developed prostate cancer from those who did not (cited Lindström et al. as reference 187).
Added text about a report from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) that sought to address the clinical utility of germline genotyping of prostate cancer risk markers discovered by genome-wide association studies (GWAS); AHRQ concluded that established prostate cancer risk SNPs have "poor discriminative ability" to identify individuals at risk of developing the disease.
Added text about how GWAS findings to date account for only a fraction of heritable risk of disease; as the full picture of inherited prostate cancer risk becomes more complete, it is hoped that germline information will become clinically useful.
Added text about a case-control study that evaluated GWAS-identified prostate cancer–associated genetic markers at chromosomal region 8q24 in men of African ancestry; rs16901979 was significantly associated with prostate cancer risk (cited Okobia et al. as reference 196).
Added text about a study of 4,073 European American men with prostate cancer that focused on germline polymorphisms residing in the C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) gene (cited Sun et al. as reference 202); inheriting the CCL2 -1181 G allele (AG or GG genotype) was associated with advanced pathologic stage and higher Gleason score, compared with the AA genotype.