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Genes With Potential Clinical Relevance in Prostate Cancer Risk

    Table 3. Case-Control Studies in Ashkenazi Jewish Populations ofBRCA1andBRCA2and Prostate Cancer Risk

    StudyPopulationControlsMutation Frequency (BRCA1)Mutation Frequency (BRCA2)Prostate Cancer Risk (BRCA1)Prostate Cancer Risk (BRCA2)Comments
    AJ = Ashkenazi Jewish; CI = confidence interval; MECC = Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer; OR = odds ratio; WAS = Washington Ashkenazi Study.
    Guisti et al., 2003[13]979 consecutive AJ men from Israel diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1994 and 1995Prevalence of founder mutations compared with age-matched controls >50 years with no history of prostate cancer from the WAS study and the MECC study from IsraelCases: 16 (1.7%)Cases: 14 (1.5%)185delAG: OR, 2.52 (95% CI, 1.05–6.04)OR, 2.02 (95% CI, 0.16–5.72)There was no evidence of unique or specific histopathology findings within the mutation-associated prostate cancers.
    Controls: 11 (0.81%)Controls: 10 (0.74%)5282insC: OR, 0.22 (95% CI, 0.16–5.72)
    Kirchoff et al., 2004[14]251 unselected AJ men treated for prostate cancer between 2000 and 20021,472 AJ men with no history of cancerCases: 5 (2.0%)Cases: 8 (3.2%)OR, 2.20 (95% CI, 0.72–6.70)OR, 4.78 (95% CI, 1.87–12.25) 
    Controls: 12 (0.8%)Controls: 16 (1.1%)
    Agalliu et al., 2009[15]979 AJ men diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1978 and 2005 (mean and median year of diagnosis: 1996)1,251 AJ men with no history of cancerCases: 12 (1.2%)Cases: 18 (1.9%)OR, 1.39 (95% CI, 0.60–3.22)OR, 1.92 (95% CI, 0.91–4.07)Gleason score 7–10 prostate cancer was more common inBRCA1mutation carriers (OR, 2.23; 95% CI, 0.84–5.86) andBRCA2mutation carriers (OR, 3.18; 95% CI, 1.62–6.24) than in controls.
    Controls: 11 (0.9%)Controls: 12 (1.0%)
    Gallagher et al., 2010[16]832 AJ men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer between 1988 and 2007454 AJ men with no history of cancerNoncarriers: 806 (96.9%)Noncarriers: 447 (98.5%)OR, 0.38 (95% CI, 0.05–2.75)OR, 3.18 (95% CI, 1.52–6.66)TheBRCA15382insC founder mutation was not tested in this series, so it is likely that some carriers of this mutation were not identified. Consequently,BRCA1-related risk may be underestimated. Gleason score 7–10 prostate cancer was more common inBRCA2mutation carriers (85%) than in noncarriers (57%);P = .0002.BRCA1/2mutation carriers had significantly greater risk of recurrence and prostate cancer–specific death than did noncarriers.
    Cases: 6 (0.7%)Cases: 20 (2.4%)
    Controls: 4 (0.9%)Controls: 3 (0.7%)

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