Skip to content
My WebMD Sign In, Sign Up
Font Size

Genetics of Prostate Cancer (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Genes With Potential Clinical Relevance in Prostate Cancer Risk

Table 6. Case-Control Studies ofBRCA1andBRCA2and Survival Outcomes continued...


Linkage to 17q21-22 was initially reported by the UM-PCGP from 175 pedigrees of families with hereditary prostate cancer.[26] Fine-mapping of this region provided strong evidence of linkage (LOD score = 5.49) and a narrow candidate interval (15.5 Mb) for a putative susceptibility gene among 147 families with four or more affected men and average age at diagnosis of 65 years or younger.[33] The exons of 200 genes in the 17q21-22 region were sequenced in DNA from 94 unrelated patients from hereditary prostate cancer families (from the UM-PCGP and Johns Hopkins).[34]Probands from four families were discovered to have a recurrent mutation (G84E) in HOXB13, and 18 men with prostate cancer from these four families carried the mutation. The mutation status was determined in 5,083 additional case subjects and 2,662 control subjects. Carrier frequencies and odds ratios for prostate cancer risk were as follows:

  • Men with a positive family history of prostate cancer: 2.2% versus negative: 0.8% (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.6–5.1; P = 1.2 × 10-4).
  • Men with an age at diagnosis younger than 55 years: 2.2% versus older than 55 years: 0.8% (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.6–4.7; P = 1.1 × 10-4).
  • Men with a positive family history of prostate cancer and age at diagnosis younger than 55 years: 3.1% versus a negative family history of prostate cancer and age at diagnosis older than 55 years: 0.6% (OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 2.4–12.2; P = 2.0 × 10-6).
  • Men with a positive family history of prostate cancer and age at diagnosis older than 55 years: 1.2%.
  • Control subjects: 0.1% to 0.2%.[34]

Additional rare variants in HOXB13 were also observed. Penetrance estimates of the G84E variant in HOXB13 are under study. HOXB13 plays a role in prostate development and binds to the androgen receptor; however, the mechanism by which it contributes to the pathogenesis of prostate cancer remains unknown. This is the first gene proven to account for a fraction of hereditary prostate cancer, particularly early-onset prostate cancer, but the clinical utility of testing for this mutation has not yet been defined.


  1. Thompson D, Easton DF; Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium.: Cancer Incidence in BRCA1 mutation carriers. J Natl Cancer Inst 94 (18): 1358-65, 2002.
  2. Liede A, Karlan BY, Narod SA: Cancer risks for male carriers of germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2: a review of the literature. J Clin Oncol 22 (4): 735-42, 2004.
  3. Cancer risks in BRCA2 mutation carriers. The Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium. J Natl Cancer Inst 91 (15): 1310-6, 1999.
  4. Thompson D, Easton D; Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium.: Variation in cancer risks, by mutation position, in BRCA2 mutation carriers. Am J Hum Genet 68 (2): 410-9, 2001.
  5. Ostrander EA, Udler MS: The role of the BRCA2 gene in susceptibility to prostate cancer revisited. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 17 (8): 1843-8, 2008.
  6. Nastiuk KL, Mansukhani M, Terry MB, et al.: Common mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 do not contribute to early prostate cancer in Jewish men. Prostate 40 (3): 172-7, 1999.
  7. Vazina A, Baniel J, Yaacobi Y, et al.: The rate of the founder Jewish mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 in prostate cancer patients in Israel. Br J Cancer 83 (4): 463-6, 2000.
  8. Lehrer S, Fodor F, Stock RG, et al.: Absence of 185delAG mutation of the BRCA1 gene and 6174delT mutation of the BRCA2 gene in Ashkenazi Jewish men with prostate cancer. Br J Cancer 78 (6): 771-3, 1998.
  9. Struewing JP, Abeliovich D, Peretz T, et al.: The carrier frequency of the BRCA1 185delAG mutation is approximately 1 percent in Ashkenazi Jewish individuals. Nat Genet 11 (2): 198-200, 1995.
  10. Oddoux C, Struewing JP, Clayton CM, et al.: The carrier frequency of the BRCA2 6174delT mutation among Ashkenazi Jewish individuals is approximately 1%. Nat Genet 14 (2): 188-90, 1996.
  11. Roa BB, Boyd AA, Volcik K, et al.: Ashkenazi Jewish population frequencies for common mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. Nat Genet 14 (2): 185-7, 1996.
  12. Struewing JP, Hartge P, Wacholder S, et al.: The risk of cancer associated with specific mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2 among Ashkenazi Jews. N Engl J Med 336 (20): 1401-8, 1997.
  13. Giusti RM, Rutter JL, Duray PH, et al.: A twofold increase in BRCA mutation related prostate cancer among Ashkenazi Israelis is not associated with distinctive histopathology. J Med Genet 40 (10): 787-92, 2003.
  14. Kirchhoff T, Kauff ND, Mitra N, et al.: BRCA mutations and risk of prostate cancer in Ashkenazi Jews. Clin Cancer Res 10 (9): 2918-21, 2004.
  15. Agalliu I, Gern R, Leanza S, et al.: Associations of high-grade prostate cancer with BRCA1 and BRCA2 founder mutations. Clin Cancer Res 15 (3): 1112-20, 2009.
  16. Gallagher DJ, Gaudet MM, Pal P, et al.: Germline BRCA mutations denote a clinicopathologic subset of prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res 16 (7): 2115-21, 2010.
  17. Cybulski C, Górski B, Gronwald J, et al.: BRCA1 mutations and prostate cancer in Poland. Eur J Cancer Prev 17 (1): 62-6, 2008.
  18. Agalliu I, Karlins E, Kwon EM, et al.: Rare germline mutations in the BRCA2 gene are associated with early-onset prostate cancer. Br J Cancer 97 (6): 826-31, 2007.
  19. Agalliu I, Kwon EM, Zadory D, et al.: Germline mutations in the BRCA2 gene and susceptibility to hereditary prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res 13 (3): 839-43, 2007.
  20. Tryggvadóttir L, Vidarsdóttir L, Thorgeirsson T, et al.: Prostate cancer progression and survival in BRCA2 mutation carriers. J Natl Cancer Inst 99 (12): 929-35, 2007.
  21. Kote-Jarai Z, Leongamornlert D, Saunders E, et al.: BRCA2 is a moderate penetrance gene contributing to young-onset prostate cancer: implications for genetic testing in prostate cancer patients. Br J Cancer 105 (8): 1230-4, 2011.
  22. Leongamornlert D, Mahmud N, Tymrakiewicz M, et al.: Germline BRCA1 mutations increase prostate cancer risk. Br J Cancer 106 (10): 1697-701, 2012.
  23. Edwards SM, Evans DG, Hope Q, et al.: Prostate cancer in BRCA2 germline mutation carriers is associated with poorer prognosis. Br J Cancer 103 (6): 918-24, 2010.
  24. Thorne H, Willems AJ, Niedermayr E, et al.: Decreased prostate cancer-specific survival of men with BRCA2 mutations from multiple breast cancer families. Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 4 (7): 1002-10, 2011.
  25. Narod SA, Neuhausen S, Vichodez G, et al.: Rapid progression of prostate cancer in men with a BRCA2 mutation. Br J Cancer 99 (2): 371-4, 2008.
  26. Lange EM, Gillanders EM, Davis CC, et al.: Genome-wide scan for prostate cancer susceptibility genes using families from the University of Michigan prostate cancer genetics project finds evidence for linkage on chromosome 17 near BRCA1. Prostate 57 (4): 326-34, 2003.
  27. Zuhlke KA, Madeoy JJ, Beebe-Dimmer J, et al.: Truncating BRCA1 mutations are uncommon in a cohort of hereditary prostate cancer families with evidence of linkage to 17q markers. Clin Cancer Res 10 (18 Pt 1): 5975-80, 2004.
  28. Douglas JA, Levin AM, Zuhlke KA, et al.: Common variation in the BRCA1 gene and prostate cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16 (7): 1510-6, 2007.
  29. Soravia C, van der Klift H, Bründler MA, et al.: Prostate cancer is part of the hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) tumor spectrum. Am J Med Genet 121A (2): 159-62, 2003.
  30. Grindedal EM, Møller P, Eeles R, et al.: Germ-line mutations in mismatch repair genes associated with prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18 (9): 2460-7, 2009.
  31. Langeberg WJ, Kwon EM, Koopmeiners JS, et al.: Population-based study of the association of variants in mismatch repair genes with prostate cancer risk and outcomes. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19 (1): 258-64, 2010.
  32. Bauer CM, Ray AM, Halstead-Nussloch BA, et al.: Hereditary prostate cancer as a feature of Lynch syndrome. Fam Cancer 10 (1): 37-42, 2011.
  33. Lange EM, Robbins CM, Gillanders EM, et al.: Fine-mapping the putative chromosome 17q21-22 prostate cancer susceptibility gene to a 10 cM region based on linkage analysis. Hum Genet 121 (1): 49-55, 2007.
  34. Ewing CM, Ray AM, Lange EM, et al.: Germline mutations in HOXB13 and prostate-cancer risk. N Engl J Med 366 (2): 141-9, 2012.

WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

Last Updated: February 25, 2014
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
Next Article:

Today on WebMD

Prostate Cancer Overview
what is your cancer risk
woman speaking with doctor
Prostate Nerve Transplant
cancer fighting foods
15 Cancer Symptoms Men Ignore
Prostate Enlarged
Picture Of The Prostate
Prostate Cancer Quiz
screening tests for men
Prostate Cancer Symptoms
Vitamin D