Two tests are used to look for prostate cancer: a digital rectal exam and a PSA blood test.
The PSA blood test looks for something called prostate-specific antigen in the blood. Who should have a PSA test and when is controversial:
The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force does not recommend regular PSA tests. The task force say the tests may find cancers that are so slow growing that treatment, which can have serious side effects, would offer no benefit.
The American Cancer Society (ACS)...
Dull, aching pain in your lower back, pelvis, or hips.
lymph nodes in the groin area. These nodes are usually
Active surveillance or watchful waiting
Active surveillance means a man will be watched closely by his doctor and have regular checkups and tests, including prostatebiopsies. If the cancer starts to grow more quickly, he will have other treatment.
Active surveillance is an option for men with low-risk cancer who expect to live more than 10 years and don't have other chronic health problems. It may be an option for some men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer. But active surveillance usually is not a choice when prostate cancer has spread.
Sometimes men who have PSA levels that are rising slowly after having treatment may not start hormone treatments right away but be monitored with active surveillance.
Watchful waiting means a man will be watched closely by his doctor but not have treatments that try to get rid of the cancer. If an older man has serious health problems and isn't expected to live more than 10 years, he may not be able to handle treatments or even want to have treatments except those needed to keep him comfortable (palliative care).
Who to see
Doctors who can treat locally advanced and metastatic
prostate cancer include: