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Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Zyflamend

Overview

  • Zyflamend is a dietary supplement that contains extracts of rosemary, turmeric, ginger, holy basil, green tea, hu zhang, Chinese goldthread, barberry, oregano, and Baikal skullcap.
  • The individual components of Zyflamend have anti-inflammatory and possible anticarcinogenic properties.
  • In various preclinical studies, Zyflamend has been shown to suppress the expression of certain genes involved in the inflammatory response and in cancer progression, such as cyclooxygenase 1(COX-1), COX-2, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), and 12-LOX.
  • In other preclinical studies, Zyflamend has demonstrated single-agent anticancer activity and the capacity to be used with hormonal and chemotherapy agents for improved cancer suppression.
  • Results of a phase I study of Zyflamend suggest that use of this supplement is not associated with serious toxicity or adverse effects.

General Information and History

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Zyflamend is a dietary supplement that contains extracts of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), holy basil (Ocimum sanctum L.), green tea (Camellia sinensis[L.] Kuntze), hu zhang (Polygonum cuspidatum Siebold & Zucc., a source of resveratrol), Chinese goldthread (Coptis chinensis Franch.), barberry (Berberis vulgaris L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), and Baikal skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi). The individual components of Zyflamend have anti-inflammatory and possible anti-carcinogenic properties. For example, results of a 2011 study suggest that Zyflamend may inhibit the growth of melanoma cells.[1]

The extracts in Zyflamend have been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects via inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) activity. COXs are enzymes that convert arachidonic acid into prostaglandins, which are thought to play a role in tumor development and metastasis. One COX enzyme, COX-2, is activated during chronic disease states, such as cancer.[2]

The antitumorigenic mechanisms of action of Zyflamend are unknown, but, according to one study, Zyflamend may suppress activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) (a nuclear transcription factor involved in tumorigenesis) and NF-kappa B-regulated gene products.[3]

Preclinical/Animal Studies

In vitro studies

In a study reported in 2012, human prostate cancer cells were treated in vitro with Zyflamend. Cells treated with the supplement at concentrations ranging from 0.06 to 0.5 μL /mL exhibited dose-dependent decreases in androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) expression levels, compared with cells treated with the dimethyl sulfoxide vehicle control. Prostate cancer cells that were treated with a combination of Zyflamend (0.06 μL/mL) and bicalutamide (25 μM), an androgen receptor inhibitor, showed reductions in cell growth, PSA expression, and anti-apoptotic protein expression, compared with cells treated with Zyflamend or bicalutamide alone.[4]

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