Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Zyflamend
Zyflamend is a dietary supplement that contains extracts of rosemary, turmeric, ginger, holy basil, green tea, hu zhang, Chinese goldthread, barberry, oregano, and Baikal skullcap.
The individual components of Zyflamend have anti-inflammatory and possible anticarcinogenic properties.
In various preclinical studies, Zyflamend has been shown to suppress the expression of certain genes involved in the inflammatory response and in cancer progression, such as cyclooxygenase 1(COX-1), COX-2, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), and 12-LOX.
In other preclinical studies, Zyflamend has demonstrated single-agent anticancer activity, and the capacity to be combined with hormonal and chemotherapy agents for improved cancer suppression.
Results of a phase I study of Zyflamend suggest that use of this supplement is not associated with serious toxicity or adverse effects.
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Zyflamend is a dietary supplement that contains extracts of rosemary, turmeric, ginger, holy basil, green tea, hu zhang (Polygonum cuspidatum, a source of resveratrol), Chinese goldthread, barberry, oregano, and Baikal skullcap. The individual components of Zyflamend have anti-inflammatory and possible anti-carcinogenic properties. For example, results of a 2011 study suggest that Zyflamend may inhibit the growth of melanoma cells.
The extracts in Zyflamend have been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects via inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) activity. COXs are enzymes that convert arachidonic acid into prostaglandins, which are thought to play a role in tumor development and metastasis. One COX enzyme, COX-2, is activated during chronic disease states, such as cancer.
The antitumorigenic mechanisms of action of Zyflamend are unknown, but, according to one study, Zyflamend may suppress activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) (a nuclear transcription factor involved in tumorigenesis) and NF-kappa B–regulated gene products.
In vitro studies
In a study reported in 2012, human prostate cancer cells were treated in vitro with Zyflamend. Cells treated with the supplement at concentrations ranging from 0.06 to 0.5 μL /mL exhibited dose-dependent decreases in androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) expression levels, compared with cells treated with the dimethyl sulfoxide vehicle control. Prostate cancer cells that were treated with a combination of Zyflamend (0.06 μL/mL) and bicalutamide (25 μM), an androgen receptor inhibitor, showed reductions in cell growth, PSA expression, and anti-apoptotic protein expression, compared with cells treated with Zyflamend or bicalutamide alone.
Although the individual components of Zyflamend have been shown to influence COX activity, one study examined the effects of the drug on COX-1 and COX-2 in prostate cancer cells. The results revealed that Zyflamend, at a concentration of 0.9 μL/mL, was effective in inhibiting the activity of both COX-1 and COX-2 in a biochemical assay; at 0.45 μL/mL Zyflamend, a similar extent of COX-2 inhibition was observed, but the level of COX-1 inhibition was reduced by 50%. At a concentration of 0.1 μL/mL, Zyflamend effectively inhibited growth of prostate cancer cells and increased the level of caspase-3, a pro-apoptotic enzyme. However, a separate experiment indicated that the prostate cancer cells used in the study (LNCaP cells, which are androgen sensitive) did not express high levels of COX-2, suggesting that Zyflamend's effects on prostate cancer cells may result from a COX-independent mechanism.