Prostate Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer Development
Regular multivitamin use has not been associated with the risk of early or localized prostate cancer. However, in this large (295,344 men) study, there was a statistically significantly increased risk of advanced and fatal prostate cancer among men with excessive use of multivitamins.
The Aspirin/Folate Polyp Prevention Study, a placebo-controlled randomized trial of aspirin and folic acid supplementation for the chemoprevention of colorectal adenomas, was conducted between July 6, 1994, and December 31, 2006. In a secondary analysis, the authors addressed the effect of folic acid supplementation on the risk of prostate cancer. Participants were followed for up to 10.8 (median = 7.0, interquartile range = 6.0-7.8) years and asked periodically to report all illnesses and hospitalizations. Supplementation with 1 mg of folic acid was associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. However, dietary and plasma levels among nonmultivitamin users were inversely associated with risk. These findings highlight the potentially complex role of folate in prostate carcinogenesis.[48,49]
Cadmium exposure is occupationally associated with nickel-cadmium batteries and cadmium recovery plant smelters and is associated with cigarette smoke. The earliest studies of this agent documented an apparent association, but better-designed studies have failed to note an association.[51,52]
Dioxin (2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin or TCDD) is a contaminant of an herbicide used in Vietnam. This agent is similar to many components of herbicides used in farming. A review of the linkage between dioxin and prostate cancer risk by the National Academy of Sciences Institute of Medicine Committee to Review the Health Effects in Vietnam Veterans of Exposure to Herbicides, found only two articles on prostate cancer with sufficient numbers of cases and follow-up to allow analysis.[53,54] The analysis of all available data suggests that the association between dioxin exposure and prostate cancer is not conclusive.
- Epidemiological aspects. In: Kirby RS, Christmas TJ, Brawer MK: Prostate Cancer. London, England: Mosby, 1996, pp 23-32.
- Cancer incidence in the United States (SEER) age-specific rates. In: Harras A, Edwards BK, Blot WJ, eds.: Cancer Rates and Risks. 4th ed. Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute, 1996, pp 22.
- Steinberg GD, Carter BS, Beaty TH, et al.: Family history and the risk of prostate cancer. Prostate 17 (4): 337-47, 1990.
- Grönberg H, Isaacs SD, Smith JR, et al.: Characteristics of prostate cancer in families potentially linked to the hereditary prostate cancer 1 (HPC1) locus. JAMA 278 (15): 1251-5, 1997.
- Carter BS, Steinberg GD, Beaty TH, et al.: Familial risk factors for prostate cancer. Cancer Surv 11: 5-13, 1991.
- Schaid DJ, McDonnell SK, Blute ML, et al.: Evidence for autosomal dominant inheritance of prostate cancer. Am J Hum Genet 62 (6): 1425-38, 1998.
- Bauer JJ, Srivastava S, Connelly RR, et al.: Significance of familial history of prostate cancer to traditional prognostic variables, genetic biomarkers, and recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Urology 51 (6): 970-6, 1998.
- Imperato-McGinley J, Gautier T, Zirinsky K, et al.: Prostate visualization studies in males homozygous and heterozygous for 5 alpha-reductase deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 75 (4): 1022-6, 1992.
- Isaacs JT: Hormonal balance and the risk of prostatic cancer. J Cell Biochem Suppl 16H: 107-8, 1992.
- Peters CA, Walsh PC: The effect of nafarelin acetate, a luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone agonist, on benign prostatic hyperplasia. N Engl J Med 317 (10): 599-604, 1987.
- Kyprianou N, Isaacs JT: Expression of transforming growth factor-beta in the rat ventral prostate during castration-induced programmed cell death. Mol Endocrinol 3 (10): 1515-22, 1989.
- Andriole GL, Bostwick DG, Brawley OW, et al.: Effect of dutasteride on the risk of prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 362 (13): 1192-202, 2010.
- Thompson IM, Goodman PJ, Tangen CM, et al.: The influence of finasteride on the development of prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 349 (3): 215-24, 2003.
- Ellis L, Nyborg H: Racial/ethnic variations in male testosterone levels: a probable contributor to group differences in health. Steroids 57 (2): 72-5, 1992.
- Ross RK, Bernstein L, Lobo RA, et al.: 5-alpha-reductase activity and risk of prostate cancer among Japanese and US white and black males. Lancet 339 (8798): 887-9, 1992.
- Wu AH, Whittemore AS, Kolonel LN, et al.: Serum androgens and sex hormone-binding globulins in relation to lifestyle factors in older African-American, white, and Asian men in the United States and Canada. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 4 (7): 735-41, 1995 Oct-Nov.
- Roddam AW, Allen NE, Appleby P, et al.: Endogenous sex hormones and prostate cancer: a collaborative analysis of 18 prospective studies. J Natl Cancer Inst 100 (3): 170-83, 2008.
- Altekruse SF, Kosary CL, Krapcho M, et al.: SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2007. Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute, 2010. Also available online. Last accessed January 29, 2014.
- Bunker CH, Patrick AL, Konety BR, et al.: High prevalence of screening-detected prostate cancer among Afro-Caribbeans: the Tobago Prostate Cancer Survey. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11 (8): 726-9, 2002.
- Optenberg SA, Thompson IM, Friedrichs P, et al.: Race, treatment, and long-term survival from prostate cancer in an equal-access medical care delivery system. JAMA 274 (20): 1599-605, 1995 Nov 22-29.
- Wynder EL, Mabuchi K, Whitmore WF Jr: Epidemiology of cancer of the prostate. Cancer 28 (2): 344-60, 1971.
- Armstrong B, Doll R: Environmental factors and cancer incidence and mortality in different countries, with special reference to dietary practices. Int J Cancer 15 (4): 617-31, 1975.
- Rose DP, Connolly JM: Dietary fat, fatty acids and prostate cancer. Lipids 27 (10): 798-803, 1992.
- Haenszel W, Kurihara M: Studies of Japanese migrants. I. Mortality from cancer and other diseases among Japanese in the United States. J Natl Cancer Inst 40 (1): 43-68, 1968.
- Shimizu H, Ross RK, Bernstein L, et al.: Cancers of the prostate and breast among Japanese and white immigrants in Los Angeles County. Br J Cancer 63 (6): 963-6, 1991.
- Wang Y, Corr JG, Thaler HT, et al.: Decreased growth of established human prostate LNCaP tumors in nude mice fed a low-fat diet. J Natl Cancer Inst 87 (19): 1456-62, 1995.
- Connolly JM, Coleman M, Rose DP: Effects of dietary fatty acids on DU145 human prostate cancer cell growth in athymic nude mice. Nutr Cancer 29 (2): 114-9, 1997.
- Ross RK, Shimizu H, Paganini-Hill A, et al.: Case-control studies of prostate cancer in blacks and whites in southern California. J Natl Cancer Inst 78 (5): 869-74, 1987.
- Kolonel LN, Yoshizawa CN, Hankin JH: Diet and prostatic cancer: a case-control study in Hawaii. Am J Epidemiol 127 (5): 999-1012, 1988.
- Whittemore AS, Kolonel LN, Wu AH, et al.: Prostate cancer in relation to diet, physical activity, and body size in blacks, whites, and Asians in the United States and Canada. J Natl Cancer Inst 87 (9): 652-61, 1995.
- Giovannucci E: Epidemiologic characteristics of prostate cancer. Cancer 75 (Suppl 7): 1766-77, 1995.
- Mettlin C, Selenskas S, Natarajan N, et al.: Beta-carotene and animal fats and their relationship to prostate cancer risk. A case-control study. Cancer 64 (3): 605-12, 1989.
- Severson RK, Nomura AM, Grove JS, et al.: A prospective study of demographics, diet, and prostate cancer among men of Japanese ancestry in Hawaii. Cancer Res 49 (7): 1857-60, 1989.
- Zhou JR, Blackburn GL: Bridging animal and human studies: what are the missing segments in dietary fat and prostate cancer? Am J Clin Nutr 66 (6 Suppl): 1572S-1580S, 1997.
- Rose DP, Boyar AP, Wynder EL: International comparisons of mortality rates for cancer of the breast, ovary, prostate, and colon, and per capita food consumption. Cancer 58 (11): 2363-71, 1986.
- Bairati I, Meyer F, Fradet Y, et al.: Dietary fat and advanced prostate cancer. J Urol 159 (4): 1271-5, 1998.
- Cole P, Rodu B: Declining cancer mortality in the United States. Cancer 78 (10): 2045-8, 1996.
- Wynder EL, Cohen LA: Correlating nutrition to recent cancer mortality statistics. J Natl Cancer Inst 89 (4): 324, 1997.
- Kristal AR, Till C, Platz EA, et al.: Serum lycopene concentration and prostate cancer risk: results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 20 (4): 638-46, 2011.
- Kristal AR, Arnold KB, Neuhouser ML, et al.: Diet, supplement use, and prostate cancer risk: results from the prostate cancer prevention trial. Am J Epidemiol 172 (5): 566-77, 2010.
- Hill P, Wynder EL, Garbaczewski L, et al.: Diet and urinary steroids in black and white North American men and black South African men. Cancer Res 39 (12): 5101-5, 1979.
- Hämäläinen E, Adlercreutz H, Puska P, et al.: Diet and serum sex hormones in healthy men. J Steroid Biochem 20 (1): 459-64, 1984.
- Rose DP, Connolly JM: Effects of fatty acids and eicosanoid synthesis inhibitors on the growth of two human prostate cancer cell lines. Prostate 18 (3): 243-54, 1991.
- Kondo Y, Homma Y, Aso Y, et al.: Promotional effect of two-generation exposure to a high-fat diet on prostate carcinogenesis in ACI/Seg rats. Cancer Res 54 (23): 6129-32, 1994.
- Henderson BE, Bernstein L, Ross RK, et al.: The early in utero oestrogen and testosterone environment of blacks and whites: potential effects on male offspring. Br J Cancer 57 (2): 216-8, 1988.
- Gao X, LaValley MP, Tucker KL: Prospective studies of dairy product and calcium intakes and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst 97 (23): 1768-77, 2005.
- Lawson KA, Wright ME, Subar A, et al.: Multivitamin use and risk of prostate cancer in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. J Natl Cancer Inst 99 (10): 754-64, 2007.
- Figueiredo JC, Grau MV, Haile RW, et al.: Folic acid and risk of prostate cancer: results from a randomized clinical trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 101 (6): 432-5, 2009.
- Kristal AR, Lippman SM: Nutritional prevention of cancer: new directions for an increasingly complex challenge. J Natl Cancer Inst 101 (6): 363-5, 2009.
- Pienta KJ: Epidemiology and etiology of prostate cancer. In: Raghavan D, Scher HI, Leibel SA, eds.: Principles and Practice of Genitourinary Oncology. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1997, pp 379-385.
- García Sánchez A, Antona JF, Urrutia M: Geochemical prospection of cadmium in a high incidence area of prostate cancer, Sierra de Gata, Salamanca, Spain. Sci Total Environ 116 (3): 243-51, 1992.
- Boffetta P: Methodological aspects of the epidemiological association between cadmium and cancer in humans. In: Nordberg GF, Herber RF, Alessio L, eds.: Cadmium in the Human Environment: Toxicity and Carcinogenicity. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1992, pp 425-434.
- Fingerhut MA, Halperin WE, Marlow DA, et al.: Cancer mortality in workers exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. N Engl J Med 324 (4): 212-8, 1991.
- Bertazzi PA, Zocchetti C, Pesatori AC, et al.: Ten-year mortality study of the population involved in the Seveso incident in 1976. Am J Epidemiol 129 (6): 1187-200, 1989.
- Committee to Review the Health Effects in Vietnam Veterans of Exposure to Herbicides.: Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 1996. In: Washington DC, National Academy Press, 1996.