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Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Recurrent Prostate Cancer Treatment


Ongoing clinical trials continue to explore the value of chemotherapy for these patients.[9,10,11,12,34,40,41,42]

Current Clinical Trials

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with recurrent prostate cancer. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.

General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.


  1. Trock BJ, Han M, Freedland SJ, et al.: Prostate cancer-specific survival following salvage radiotherapy vs observation in men with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. JAMA 299 (23): 2760-9, 2008.
  2. Ray GR, Bagshaw MA, Freiha F: External beam radiation salvage for residual or recurrent local tumor following radical prostatectomy. J Urol 132 (5): 926-30, 1984.
  3. Carter GE, Lieskovsky G, Skinner DG, et al.: Results of local and/or systemic adjuvant therapy in the management of pathological stage C or D1 prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy. J Urol 142 (5): 1266-70; discussion 1270-1, 1989.
  4. Freeman JA, Lieskovsky G, Cook DW, et al.: Radical retropubic prostatectomy and postoperative adjuvant radiation for pathological stage C (PcN0) prostate cancer from 1976 to 1989: intermediate findings. J Urol 149 (5): 1029-34, 1993.
  5. Moul JW, Paulson DF: The role of radical surgery in the management of radiation recurrent and large volume prostate cancer. Cancer 68 (6): 1265-71, 1991.
  6. Schellhammer PF, Kuban DA, el-Mahdi AM: Treatment of clinical local failure after radiation therapy for prostate carcinoma. J Urol 150 (6): 1851-5, 1993.
  7. Bales GT, Williams MJ, Sinner M, et al.: Short-term outcomes after cryosurgical ablation of the prostate in men with recurrent prostate carcinoma following radiation therapy. Urology 46 (5): 676-80, 1995.
  8. Taylor CD, Elson P, Trump DL: Importance of continued testicular suppression in hormone-refractory prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 11 (11): 2167-72, 1993.
  9. Debruyne FJ, Murray R, Fradet Y, et al.: Liarozole--a novel treatment approach for advanced prostate cancer: results of a large randomized trial versus cyproterone acetate. Liarozole Study Group. Urology 52 (1): 72-81, 1998.
  10. Eisenberger MA: Chemotherapy for prostate carcinoma. NCI Monogr (7): 151-63, 1988.
  11. Pienta KJ, Redman B, Hussain M, et al.: Phase II evaluation of oral estramustine and oral etoposide in hormone-refractory adenocarcinoma of the prostate. J Clin Oncol 12 (10): 2005-12, 1994.
  12. Hudes GR, Greenberg R, Krigel RL, et al.: Phase II study of estramustine and vinblastine, two microtubule inhibitors, in hormone-refractory prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 10 (11): 1754-61, 1992.
  13. Kuban DA, el-Mahdi AM, Schellhammer PF: Prostate-specific antigen for pretreatment prediction and posttreatment evaluation of outcome after definitive irradiation for prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 32 (2): 307-16, 1995.
  14. Sandler HM, Dunn RL, McLaughlin PW, et al.: Overall survival after prostate-specific-antigen-detected recurrence following conformal radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 48 (3): 629-33, 2000.
  15. Crook JM, O'Callaghan CJ, Duncan G, et al.: Intermittent androgen suppression for rising PSA level after radiotherapy. N Engl J Med 367 (10): 895-903, 2012.
  16. de Bono JS, Logothetis CJ, Molina A, et al.: Abiraterone and increased survival in metastatic prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 364 (21): 1995-2005, 2011.
  17. Scher HI, Fizazi K, Saad F, et al.: Increased survival with enzalutamide in prostate cancer after chemotherapy. N Engl J Med 367 (13): 1187-97, 2012.
  18. Fosså SD, Dearnaley DP, Law M, et al.: Prognostic factors in hormone-resistant progressing cancer of the prostate. Ann Oncol 3 (5): 361-6, 1992.
  19. Kelly WK, Scher HI, Mazumdar M, et al.: Prostate-specific antigen as a measure of disease outcome in metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 11 (4): 607-15, 1993.
  20. Small EJ, Vogelzang NJ: Second-line hormonal therapy for advanced prostate cancer: a shifting paradigm. J Clin Oncol 15 (1): 382-8, 1997.
  21. Small EJ, Halabi S, Dawson NA, et al.: Antiandrogen withdrawal alone or in combination with ketoconazole in androgen-independent prostate cancer patients: a phase III trial (CALGB 9583). J Clin Oncol 22 (6): 1025-33, 2004.
  22. Sridhara R, Eisenberger MA, Sinibaldi VJ, et al.: Evaluation of prostate-specific antigen as a surrogate marker for response of hormone-refractory prostate cancer to suramin therapy. J Clin Oncol 13 (12): 2944-53, 1995.
  23. Hussain M, Wolf M, Marshall E, et al.: Effects of continued androgen-deprivation therapy and other prognostic factors on response and survival in phase II chemotherapy trials for hormone-refractory prostate cancer: a Southwest Oncology Group report. J Clin Oncol 12 (9): 1868-75, 1994.
  24. Fizazi K, Carducci M, Smith M, et al.: Denosumab versus zoledronic acid for treatment of bone metastases in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer: a randomised, double-blind study. Lancet 377 (9768): 813-22, 2011.
  25. Scher HI, Chung LW: Bone metastases: improving the therapeutic index. Semin Oncol 21 (5): 630-56, 1994.
  26. Dearnaley DP, Sydes MR, Mason MD, et al.: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of oral sodium clodronate for metastatic prostate cancer (MRC PR05 Trial). J Natl Cancer Inst 95 (17): 1300-11, 2003.
  27. Ernst DS, Tannock IF, Winquist EW, et al.: Randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of mitoxantrone/prednisone and clodronate versus mitoxantrone/prednisone and placebo in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer and pain. J Clin Oncol 21 (17): 3335-42, 2003.
  28. Saad F, Gleason DM, Murray R, et al.: Long-term efficacy of zoledronic acid for the prevention of skeletal complications in patients with metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 96 (11): 879-82, 2004.
  29. Kaasa S, Brenne E, Lund JA, et al.: Prospective randomised multicenter trial on single fraction radiotherapy (8 Gy x 1) versus multiple fractions (3 Gy x 10) in the treatment of painful bone metastases. Radiother Oncol 79 (3): 278-84, 2006.
  30. Chow E, Harris K, Fan G, et al.: Palliative radiotherapy trials for bone metastases: a systematic review. J Clin Oncol 25 (11): 1423-36, 2007.
  31. Robinson RG: Strontium-89--precursor targeted therapy for pain relief of blastic metastatic disease. Cancer 72 (11 Suppl): 3433-5, 1993.
  32. Oosterhof GO, Roberts JT, de Reijke TM, et al.: Strontium(89) chloride versus palliative local field radiotherapy in patients with hormonal escaped prostate cancer: a phase III study of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer, Genitourinary Group. Eur Urol 44 (5): 519-26, 2003.
  33. Porter AT, McEwan AJ, Powe JE, et al.: Results of a randomized phase-III trial to evaluate the efficacy of strontium-89 adjuvant to local field external beam irradiation in the management of endocrine resistant metastatic prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 25 (5): 805-13, 1993.
  34. Tannock IF, Osoba D, Stockler MR, et al.: Chemotherapy with mitoxantrone plus prednisone or prednisone alone for symptomatic hormone-resistant prostate cancer: a Canadian randomized trial with palliative end points. J Clin Oncol 14 (6): 1756-64, 1996.
  35. Tannock IF, de Wit R, Berry WR, et al.: Docetaxel plus prednisone or mitoxantrone plus prednisone for advanced prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 351 (15): 1502-12, 2004.
  36. Berthold DR, Pond GR, Soban F, et al.: Docetaxel plus prednisone or mitoxantrone plus prednisone for advanced prostate cancer: updated survival in the TAX 327 study. J Clin Oncol 26 (2): 242-5, 2008.
  37. Petrylak DP, Tangen CM, Hussain MH, et al.: Docetaxel and estramustine compared with mitoxantrone and prednisone for advanced refractory prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 351 (15): 1513-20, 2004.
  38. Berry DL, Moinpour CM, Jiang CS, et al.: Quality of life and pain in advanced stage prostate cancer: results of a Southwest Oncology Group randomized trial comparing docetaxel and estramustine to mitoxantrone and prednisone. J Clin Oncol 24 (18): 2828-35, 2006.
  39. de Bono JS, Oudard S, Ozguroglu M, et al.: Prednisone plus cabazitaxel or mitoxantrone for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after docetaxel treatment: a randomised open-label trial. Lancet 376 (9747): 1147-54, 2010.
  40. Petrylak DP, Macarthur RB, O'Connor J, et al.: Phase I trial of docetaxel with estramustine in androgen-independent prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 17 (3): 958-67, 1999.
  41. Millikan RE: Chemotherapy of advanced prostatic carcinoma. Semin Oncol 26 (2): 185-91, 1999.
  42. Amato RJ, Logothetis CJ, Hallinan R, et al.: Chemotherapy for small cell carcinoma of prostatic origin. J Urol 147 (3 Pt 2): 935-7, 1992.
  43. Kantoff PW, Higano CS, Shore ND, et al.: Sipuleucel-T immunotherapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 363 (5): 411-22, 2010.
  44. Longo DL: New therapies for castration-resistant prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 363 (5): 479-81, 2010.
  45. Higano CS, Schellhammer PF, Small EJ, et al.: Integrated data from 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trials of active cellular immunotherapy with sipuleucel-T in advanced prostate cancer. Cancer 115 (16): 3670-9, 2009.
  46. Small EJ, Schellhammer PF, Higano CS, et al.: Placebo-controlled phase III trial of immunologic therapy with sipuleucel-T (APC8015) in patients with metastatic, asymptomatic hormone refractory prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 24 (19): 3089-94, 2006.
  47. Tannock I, Gospodarowicz M, Meakin W, et al.: Treatment of metastatic prostatic cancer with low-dose prednisone: evaluation of pain and quality of life as pragmatic indices of response. J Clin Oncol 7 (5): 590-7, 1989.
  48. Fosså SD, Slee PH, Brausi M, et al.: Flutamide versus prednisone in patients with prostate cancer symptomatically progressing after androgen-ablative therapy: a phase III study of the European organization for research and treatment of cancer genitourinary group. J Clin Oncol 19 (1): 62-71, 2001.

WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

Last Updated: February 25, 2014
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