Biologic therapy is a treatment that uses the patient's immune system to fight cancer. Substances made by the body or made in a laboratory are used to boost, direct, or restore the body's natural defenses against cancer. Sipuleucel-T is a type of biologic therapy used to treat prostate cancer that has metastasized (spread to other parts of the body).
See Drugs Approved for Prostate Cancer for more information.
Bisphosphonate drugs, such as clodronate, reduce bone disease and pain when cancer has spread to the bone.
Targeted therapy is a treatment that uses drugs or other substances to find and attack specific cancer cells without harming normal cells. Monoclonal antibody therapy is a type of targeted therapy.
Monoclonal antibody therapy is a cancer treatment that uses antibodies made in the laboratory, from a single type of immune system cell. These antibodies can identify substances on cancer cells or normal substances that may help cancer cells grow. The antibodies attach to the substances and kill the cancer cells, block their growth, or keep them from spreading. Monoclonal antibodies are given by infusion. They may be used alone or to carry drugs, toxins, or radioactive material directly to cancer cells. Denosumab is a monoclonal antibody that slows damage to the bone from cancer and lessens bone problems such as weak bones and bone pain.
New types of treatment are being tested in clinical trials.
This summary section describes treatments that are being studied in clinical trials. It may not mention every new treatment being studied. Information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.
Cryosurgery is a treatment that uses an instrument to freeze and destroy prostate cancer cells. Ultrasound is used to find the area that will be treated. This type of treatment is also called cryotherapy.
Cryosurgery can cause impotence and leakage of urine from the bladder or stool from the rectum.
High-intensity focused ultrasound
High-intensity focused ultrasound is a treatment that uses ultrasound (high-energy sound waves) to destroy cancer cells. To treat prostate cancer, an endorectal probe is used to make the sound waves.