In the late ’90s, biologic response modifiers changed expectations for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. People with RA-related pain, inflammation, and possible disability had a new and better way to control the condition.
Since the first biologics’ success, new ones have continued to enter the market at a steady pace. If you have RA, you may wonder what the difference is and how to choose.
The main treatment goals with rheumatoid arthritis are to control inflammation and slow or stop the progression of RA.
Treatment is usually a multifaceted program that consists of medications, occupational or physical therapy, and regular exercise. Sometimes, surgery is used to correct joint damage. Early, aggressive treatment is key to good results. And with today’s treatments, joint damage can be slowed or stopped in many cases.
Biologics target specific parts of the immune system. Since RA happens when the immune system goes into overdrive and attacks healthy joints, bringing the immune system under control is key to managing the disease.
Biologics fall into several classes, based on the part of the immune system they help control.
Many of them work by blocking TNF, a type of protein called a cytokine that triggers inflammation. Some target other cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) or interleukin-6 (IL-6), or B cells, another type of immune cell. Another inactivates immune cells called T cells.
Because they suppress your immune system, biologics lower your ability to fight infection. Also, each drug has its own set of potential side effects that you should talk about with your doctor.
“The differences between biologics is minor,” Fred Kantrowitz, MD, a rheumatologist on staff at Beth Israel Medical Center, tells WebMD. “The real question is whether a patient will benefit from biologics, which are an aggressive form of treatment. Once that question is answered, the majority of physicians prescribe one of the TNF-blockers.”
Two of the first biologics to become available in 1998 were TNF blockers. Thanks to the positive impact they had on RA symptoms, doctors became familiar with this class of drug. As a result, 12 years later, the long-term impact of TNF blockers is better understood than that of some other biologics.
Less Pain, Less Stress
Amy Botvin has been taking a TNF blocker to manage her RA since 2001 and has seen it impact all aspects of her life. The most obvious impact is pain relief; another is convenience.
Botvin used to pack an army of pill bottles whenever her family went on a trip. Now she gives herself an injection once a week. “It’s nice not having to worry about all of my drugs. If we go away for a long weekend, I bring a bottle of ibuprofen and that’s it,” Botvin says.
Biologics by Injection or Infusion
In choosing a biologic, you may want to consider how it’s taken. Some biologics are injected under the skin, which you can do at home. Others are infused --given by IV -- at a medical facility. Currently there aren't any oral biologics for RA.
People can give themselves injections or have a friend or family member do it for them. In general, injections need to be done more often than infusions -- anywhere from daily to every two weeks -- depending on the biologic.