You may have heard that oysters are an aphrodisiac -- but what
about potatoes, skink flesh, and sparrow brains? These things were once
considered aphrodisiacs, too. Almost everything edible was, at one time or
Aphrodisiac recipes have been cooked up throughout the world
for millennia. In Europe, up to the eighteenth century, many recipes were based
on the theories of the Roman physician Galen, who wrote that foods worked as
aphrodisiacs if they were "warm and moist" and also "windy,"
meaning they produced flatulence. Spices, mainly pepper, were important in
aphrodisiac recipes. And because they were reckoned to have these qualities,
carrots, asparagus, anise, mustard, nettles, and sweet peas were commonly
An aphrodisiac, as we use the term today, is something that
inspires lust. It usually isn't meant to cure impotence or infertility,
problems that are now handled by separate fields of medicine. But until
recently there was little distinction between sexual desire and function. Any
lack of lust, potency, or fertility would have a common cure in an aphrodisiac.
Galen thought that a "wind" -- or as one 16th-century writer put it, an
"insensible pollution" -- inflated the penis to cause an erection, so
anything that made you gassy would also make you erect.
Galen's theories were not the only basis for concocting
aphrodisiacs. Mandrake root was eaten as an aphrodisiac and as a cure for
female infertility because the forked root was supposed to resemble a woman's
thighs. This was based on an arcane philosophy called the "doctrine of
signatures." Oysters may have come to be known as an aphrodisiac only by
their resemblance to female genitals. Few old medical texts listed oysters as
an aphrodisiac, although literary allusions to that use are plentiful.
Parts of the skink, a kind of lizard, were thought to be an
aphrodisiac for centuries. It's hard to say why exactly, but three different
ancient authors make the claim. Potatoes, both sweet and white, were once known
as an aphrodisiac in Europe, probably because they were a rare delicacy when
they were first transplanted from the Americas.
Some aphrodisiacs came out of mythology. Aphrodite, the Greek
goddess of love (from whose name, of course, "aphrodisiac" is derived)
was supposed to have held sparrows sacred. We think rabbits are promiscuous
animals, hence the Playboy bunny and certain lewd sayings, but the
ancient Greeks thought sparrows were especially lustful. Because of the
association with Aphrodite, Europeans were inclined to eat sparrows,
particularly their brains, as aphrodisiacs.
St. Thomas Aquinas, a 13th-century friar, also wrote a bit on
aphrodisiacs. Like Galen, he thought aphrodisiac foods had to produce
"vital spirit" and provide good nutrition. So meat, considered the
heartiest food, was an aphrodisiac. Drinking wine produced the "vital