most precancerous or cancerous cell changes associated with HPV infection occur
cervix. This is because the cells of the cervix
naturally undergo changes in an area called the
transformation zone. This process can cause cervical
cells to become abnormal when they are infected with HPV.
It is possible that the main title of the report Chlamydia is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report.
Infection with high-risk types of HPV increase the chance that a woman with HPV
will develop abnormal cervical cell changes. It is important to have regular
exams by your doctor. If your doctor finds abnormal cells on a Pap test, the
cells can be treated to help prevent them from changing to cancer.
The presence of
HPV and abnormal cell changes does not affect the outcome of the pregnancy. A
pregnant woman infected with the type of HPV that
causes genital warts may have more complicated warts than a woman who is not
pregnant. Genital warts may increase in size, bleed, or become infected with
bacteria. Your doctor may recommend treatment. Warts may be passed on to the
newborn, but this is rare.
HPV infection and cancer in men
It is not clear
whether men who are infected with HPV on the penis are more likely to have
precancerous or cancerous changes on the penis than men who are not infected.
Because HPV does cause cell changes, more research is being done to find out
whether HPV increases the risk of penile cancer. In the United States, cancer
of the penis is extremely rare.
Among men who receive anal sex, HPV infection of
the anal canal is associated with an increased risk of anal cancer. This risk
may be especially high in men who also have