Primary amenorrhea: A condition in which a young woman never gets her first period.
Proctoscopy: An exam of the rectum.
Prognosis: Chance of recovery from an injury or disease.
Progesterone: A female hormone that acts to prepare the uterus (the womb) to receive and sustain a fertilized egg.
Prostate: A male sex gland located below the bladder and in front of the rectum. About the size of walnut, the prostate makes a milky fluid that joins with sperm during ejaculation (when sperm and other fluids are expelled from the penis during orgasm).
Prostate cancer: Cancer of the prostate gland.
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test: A test to screen for prostate cancer and to help monitor treatment.
Pubic lice: Tiny insects that live in the pubic hair and other hairy areas, except the scalp. Pubic lice are spread through close physical contact with someone who has them. They also are called "crabs."
Radiation therapy: The use of high-dose X-rays or other high-energy rays to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Also called radiotherapy.
Radical hysterectomy: A surgical procedure to remove the cervix, uterus, and part of the vagina.
Radical inguinal orchiectomy: A surgical procedure to treat testicular cancer in which the doctor removes one or both testicles through an incision (cut) in the groin.
Radical local excision: A surgical procedure that involves the removal of cancerous growths and a large portion of normal tissue around the cancer.
Radical vulvectomy: A procedure that removes the entire vulva. The lymph nodes in the groin usually are also removed.
Rape: A situation when a person has sex with another person against that person's will.
Recurrent disease: A term used to describe a disease that has come back (recurred) after it has been treated.
Reduced libido (inhibited sexual desire): A decrease in desire for or interest in sexual activity.
Refractory disease: Disease that is not improving despite treatment.
Retrograde ejaculation: A condition that occurs when, at orgasm, the ejaculate is forced back into the bladder rather than through the urethra and out the end of the penis.
Rhythm method: Also called natural family planning, rhythm is a method of birth control that focuses on learning to recognize the days a woman is fertile, and abstaining from sex before and during those days.
Risk factor: A factor that increases a person's chance of developing a disease or predisposes a person to a certain condition.
Sarcomas: Tumors of the connective tissues under the skin that tend to grow rapidly. Connective tissues include fat, muscle, blood vessels, deep skin tissues, nerves, bones, and cartilage.
Sarcoma of the uterus: Cancer of the muscle of the uterus.
Scabies: A skin condition caused by tiny mites that burrow under the skin, producing small red bumps and severe itching. The mites easily spread from person to person, especially among people who share close living spaces.