Medicines for atopic dermatitis are used to help control itching and heal the rash. If you or your child has a very mild itch and rash, you may be able to control it without medicine by using home treatment and preventive measures. But if symptoms are getting worse despite home treatment, you will need to use medical treatment to prevent the itch-scratch-rash cycle from getting out of control.
- Topical corticosteroids are the most common and effective treatment for atopic dermatitis. They are used until the rash clears.
- The topical non-steroidal ointment crisaborole (Eucina) was approved by the FDA in 2016 for treating patients 2 years old and older with mild to moderate eczema.
- Calcineurin inhibitors are topical immunosuppressant-medicines that help control your body’s overactive inflammation. These medications don’t cause skin thinning, stretch marks and blood vessel formation like steroids can, and have been shown to be safe in numerous clinical trials. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends caution when prescribing or using pimecrolimus (Elidel) cream and tacrolimus ( Protopic) ointment because of a potential cancer risk. The FDA also stresses that these medicines only be used as directed and only after trying other treatment options. These medicines aren't approved for children younger than 2 years of age.
- Antihistamines are often used to treat atopic dermatitis itch. They can also help you sleep when severe night itching is a problem. But histamines aren't always involved in atopic dermatitis itch, so these medicines may not help all people. Don't give antihistamines to your child unless you've checked with the doctor first.
- Oral corticosteroids are used in severe cases when the rash covers large areas of the body or when complications occur.
- Cyclosporine or interferon is sometimes used in adults if other treatment doesn't help.
- Antibiotic, antiviral, or antifungal medicines are used if the rash gets infected. Skin that has been broken down by scratching and inflammation can become infected.
- Coal tar applied to the skin may help reduce itching. But this medicine should not be used on skin that is very irritated, because it can make your skin problem worse. Tar preparations are sometimes used to control the condition after a stronger medicine has successfully improved atopic dermatitis.