Face transplants soon will be a reality. But they aren't what you think they
In the movies, a character goes to the doctor and emerges the next day with
someone else's face. This leads to complications. Real-life face transplants
won't be anything like this. And the real-life risks may be far more serious,
says Steven J. Pearlman, MD, president-elect of the American Academy of Facial,
Plastic, and Reconstructive Surgery.
Skin comes in all colors, from the palest ivory to the darkest brown and nearly every shade in between.
Skin problems, however, are generally color-blind, meaning that most skin conditions can occur in every race and in all skin types.
That said, there are certain skin conditions that seem to affect dark skin more frequently or with more severity. Further, many treatments used for common skin conditions can sometimes lead to even more problems when used on people of color.
But before you can...
"This is nothing at all like the illusion -- or delusion -- of swapping
a face with someone else's," Pearlman tells WebMD. "It will never be a
cosmetic procedure. The operation itself is a potentially fatal procedure
because of the risk of rejection, life-long immune suppression, and the
potential for life-threatening infections even if there is no graft
Face Transplant: The Reality
Face transplants would work much like other organ transplants. The family of
a deceased person would donate that person's face to a needy patient. But after
the transplant, the recipient would not look like the donor.
Why? The transplanted material would be a kind of a soft mask made of skin
and soft tissue. Its final shape would depend on the bone structure of the
recipient. That means that the person who got the transplant would have a
brand-new face. It would not look like the face of the donor. It would not look
like the recipient's old face, either.
"The recipient will not look like the donor or like themselves,"
Pearlman says. "We are not transplanting the underlying skeleton. So there
will be no resemblance whatever. They will look more like someone with
reconstruction of a severe burn or devastating cancer. These are people who are
not going to be that visibly attractive. Like when a toe is used to replace the
thumb. It is not a terribly attractive digit, but it works."
The new face would look better than the skin grafts now used to heal the
wounds of people who suffer devastating facial burns or traumas -- if all went
well. But there would still be big scars. The new face would not move like a
person's original face, says Ira D. Papel, MD, an officer of the American Board
of Facial, Plastic, and Reconstructive Surgery Inc. and associate professor at
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
"We have a long way to go," Papel says. "It is not just
appearance but function: motion, integrating the movement of the skin with
movement of the nose, mouth, and eyes. All the senses will be affected - and we
have no way of hooking up nerves in a reliable fashion. To try to get normal
facial function, it is a wish at this point. Maybe someday it will all be
possible. But not yet."