Scars are a natural part of the body's healing process. A scar results from the biologic process of wound repair in the skin and other tissues. Most wounds, except for very minor ones, result in some degree of scarring.
Scars can result from accidents, diseases, skin conditions such as acne, or surgeries.
Actinic keratoses commonly appear in areas of chronic sun exposure, such as the face and dorsa of the hands. Actinic cheilitis is a related condition that usually appears on the lower lips. These conditions represent early epithelial transformation that may eventually evolve into invasive SCC.
Actinic keratosis is a noninvasive lesion. The progression rate is extremely low. In a prospective study, the progression rate to SCC was less than 1 in 1,000 per year, calling into question the cost effectiveness...
Scars form when the dermis (deep, thick layer of skin) is damaged. The body forms new collagen fibers (a naturally occurring protein in the body) to mend the damage, resulting in a scar. The new scar tissue will have a different texture and quality than the surrounding tissue. Scars form after a wound is completely healed.
There are different kinds of scars. Most scars are flat and pale. However, in cases when the body produces too much collagen, scars can be raised. Raised scars are called hypertrophic scars or keloid scars. Both of these kinds of scars are more common in younger and dark-skinned people.
Some scars can have a sunken or pitted appearance. This kind of scarring occurs when underlying structures supporting the skin (for example, fat or muscle) are lost. Some surgical scars have this appearance, as do some scars from acne.
Scars also can appear as stretched skin. Such scars result when the skin stretches rapidly (for example, as in growth spurts or during pregnancy). In addition, this type of scar can occur when the skin is under tension (near a joint, for example) during the healing process.
How Can Scars Be Treated?
Although scars cannot be completely removed, their appearance can be improved to some extent. Methods for improving the appearance of scars include:
Topical treatments, such as vitamin E, cocoa butter cream, and several commercial skin care products are available over-the-counter with the claim to help heal scars but are not effective
Surgery. Although it will not remove a scar, surgery can be used to alter a scar's shape or make it less noticeable. Surgery is not recommended in cases of hypertrophic or keloid scarring (raised scars) because there is a risk of recurring scars as well as more severe scarring that results from the treatment.
Steroid injections. A long term course of steroid injections into a scar may help flatten it. Injections may help to soften the appearance of keloid or hypertrophic scars.
Radiotherapy. Low-dose, superficial radiotherapy is used to prevent recurrence of severe keloid and hypertrophic scarring. This treatment is used only in extreme cases because of potential long-term side effects.
Dermabrasion. This treatment involves the removal of the surface of the skin with special equipment. Dermabrasion is useful when the scar is raised above the surrounding skin; but, it is less useful for the treatment of sunken scars. Microdermabrasion is a much less invasive form of dermabrasion but is minimally useful for very superficial scars.
Laser resurfacing. This procedure, similar to dermabrasion, removes the surface layers of the skin using different types of lasers. Newer types of lasers may achieve more subtle results by working on the collagen in the dermis without removing the upper layers of skin. This advancement results in little down time as opposed to traditional laser resurfacing and dermabrasion, which requires a longer recovery.
Filler injections. These treatments can be used to raise sunken scars to the level of surrounding skin. The effects of these injections are only temporary, however, and the procedures may need to be regularly repeated. Newer forms of injectable fillers are now on the market and may be an option for some people.