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Shingles Vaccine Works in Large Study

Adult Vaccine Cuts Shingles Cases by Half, Lasting Pain by 2/3
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WebMD Health News

The finding on the experimental shingles vaccine comes from a huge, carefully conducted clinical trial in 38,546 people aged 60 and older. Michael N. Oxman, MD, of the VA San Diego Healthcare System and the University of California, San Diego, led the study.

"There is real hope that in the near future we will make a big reduction in the adverse impact of shingles on older people everywhere," Oxman tells WebMD.

The findings appear in the June 2 issue of The New England Journal of Medicine.

A Vaccine for Older Adults

Shingles -- doctors call it herpes zoster -- is caused by the same virus that causes chickenpox. A person who gets chickenpox gets over the illness, but the chickenpox virus stays in the body. It hides at the root of nerve cells along the spine, where the body's immune system keeps it in check.

As a person ages, this immune protection gets weaker. The virus can reawaken and travel along the nerves to the skin, where it causes the painful, blistering lesions typical of shingles. This stimulates the immune system a second time -- and for most people with a healthy immune system, this time the virus remains under control for the rest of a person's life.

However, nearly one in eight cases of shingles results in a condition known as postherpetic neuralgia. This results in extreme pain in the nerves themselves. This pain can last for months or even years. Normal pain medication does not help.

"Postherpetic neuralgia is very painful," Oxman says. "It can lead to a breeze blowing on your forehead or the touch of a shirt on your skin becoming excruciating."

According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, doctors now recommend starting antiviral drugs within 72 hours of the first sign of the shingles rash. Early treatment is believed to reduce the risk of postherpetic neuralgia and may speed up the healing process.

Vaccine Cuts Pain, Severity

The chickenpox vaccine can prevent illness in children. It's a live virus vaccine made with an extremely weak strain of herpes zoster virus. Oxman's team used the same vaccine in adults. But because most adults already are immune to the virus, they had to use a much larger dose of the vaccine to get an effect.

Half the people in the study got the vaccine, and half didn't. The results:

  • The vaccine cut shingles cases by 51%.
  • The vaccine reduced shingles severity by 61%.
  • The vaccine reduced cases of postherpetic neuralgia by 66.5%.

That last number is the most important one, says herpes virus expert Sam Speck, PhD, professor of microbiology and immunology at the Emory Vaccine Center and director of the center for emerging infectious diseases at Emory University in Atlanta.

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