Enhanced Image of MRSA
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What is MRSA?

This tiny cluster of bacteria is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), seen under a microscope. This strain of the common "staph" bacteria causes infections in different parts of the body -- including the skin, lungs, and other areas. MRSA is sometimes called a "superbug" because it doesn’t respond to many antibiotics. Though most MRSA infections are minor, some can be life-threatening.

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MRSA Infection
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MRSA Skin Infection: Signs & Symptoms

MRSA infections can appear as a small red bump, pimple, or boil. The area may be tender, swollen, or warm to the touch. Most of these infections are mild, but they can change, becoming deeper and more serious. 

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Spider Bite vs MRSA
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MRSA, Spider Bite or Something Else?

Bug bites, rashes, and other skin problems can be confused with MRSA because the symptoms are similar. ER doctors often ask patients who think they have a spider bite whether they saw the spider. These "bites" may turn out to be MRSA. When a skin infection spreads or doesn’t improve after 2-3 days on usual antibiotics, contact your doctor. 

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Cellulitis On Hands
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MRSA Skin Infection: Cellulitis

MRSA can also lead to cellulitis, an infection of the deeper layers of skin and the tissues beneath them. Cellulitis can spread quickly over a few hours. The skin looks pink or red, like a sunburn, and may be warm, tender, and swollen.

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Abscess from MRSA
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MRSA Skin Infection: Abscess

Without proper, timely care, the bacteria can cause a minor infection site to become an abscess -- a painful lump under the skin that’s filled with pus. Treatment may require surgical drainage and antibiotics.

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Woman Using Bar to Stretch
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MRSA: How Do People Catch It?

MRSA is spread by touching an infected person or exposed item when you have an open cut or scrape. Poor hygiene -- sharing razors, towels, or athletic gear can also be to blame. Two in 100 people carry the bacteria on their bodies, but usually don't get sick.

 

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Surgeons Operating on Patient
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Who Gets MRSA?

People who've had recent surgery or a hospital stay are more likely to get MRSA. It's also seen in older people, those living in nursing homes, and people with weakened immune systems. A chronic disease like diabetes, cancer, or HIV raises your chances of coming down with this stubborn infection.

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Hospital Warning Sign
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How Safe Are Hospitals?

Hospitals are the main sources of MRSA infections due to the high traffic of ill or wounded patients. They’re working to curb the problem. Efforts include screening patients for MRSA, good hand hygiene, and wearing gloves. It's paying off -- MRSA infections are down an estimated 50% in health care settings. 

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Two Men In Gym
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Can Healthy People Get MRSA?

Yes. Infections are showing up more in people outside of hospitals. These outbreaks -- called community-associated MRSA -- are seen at schools, gyms, day care centers and other places where people share close quarters.

 

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Hand Petting Cat
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MRSA in Dogs and Cats

It looks like MRSA has jumped from humans to household pets, where it can linger without clear symptoms. Animals can carry the bacteria on their skin and may give it right back to the pet owner or spread it to other animals. 

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Child Playing in Sand
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MRSA on the Beach

MRSA has been found in the sand and water at beaches in the U.S. Staph bacteria can live in seawater for several days and reproduce in the sand. A few ways to protect yourself: Cover scrapes before playing in the sand, wash your hands often, shower when you come out of the water, and don’t wear a swimsuit again without washing it.

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Staphylococcus Aureus
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How Is MRSA Diagnosed?

If you think you have a MRSA skin infection, cover the site with a bandage. Contact a health care provider, who will swab a sample of the area and send it to a lab for testing.

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Doctor Applying Bandage to Patient
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How Is MRSA Treated?

Some infections may only need to be drained, cleaned, and covering at the doctor’s office. Oral antibiotics can treat MRSA, but because it doesn’t respond to many common drugs like methicillin, amoxicillin, penicillin, oxacillin, and cephalorsporins, your doctor may use clindamycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, or linezolid. Invasive MRSA can be treated intravenously with Vancomycin.  

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Doctor Applying Bandage to Patient
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New Drugs Hit the Market

The FDA is fast-tracking new treatments for MRSA. It has approved three new antibiotics in the past few years: Dalvance (dalbavancin) and Orbactiv (oritavancin), which you get through an IV, and Sivextro (tedizolid phosphate), a pill that you take every day.

 

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Antibiotic Pill in Bottle
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MRSA Skin Infection: Home Care

If drugs are prescribed, it's important to finish all doses -- even if your symptoms fade. Stopping early can cause the infection to come back or allow the MRSA bacteria to become immune to the drugs that still work. Keep the sore covered until it has healed and change the bandages when your doctor's tells you to. You should also wash any used bedding, towels, and clothes.

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Doctor injecting medicine into woman's IV drip
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MRSA Complications

MRSA can spread from a small, contained infection to one that involves your internal organs and body systems. It has been linked to pneumonia and bloodstream infections like sepsis. Recent CDC reports found over 72,000 severe MRSA infections and over 9,000 deaths per year. 

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Cleaning Supplies in Gym
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How to Avoid MRSA

Frequent hand washing with soap and water and using an alcohol-based hand sanitizer are great ways to avoid MRSA. Wipe down surfaces you come into contact with at the gym and shower promptly after any skin-to-skin contact. Don't touch other people's wounds or bandages or share personal items. During a hospital stay, remind staff members to wash their hands before they touch you.

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Sources | Medically Reviewed on 05/19/2016 Reviewed by Laura J. Martin, MD on May 19, 2016

IMAGES PROVIDED BY:

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REFERENCES:

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention web site.

FDA, FDA Approves Dalvance to Treat Skin Infections

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Lance Peterson, MD, department of microbiology and infectious diseases research, NorthShore University Health System, Evanston, Ill.

Liu, C. Clinical Infectious Diseases, January 2011.

Marilyn Roberts, PhD, department of environmental and occupational health sciences, University of Washington School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Seattle.

The Medicines Company: ORBACTIV™ (oritavancin) for injection

Medscape Reference

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Sing, A. The New England Journal of Medicine, March 13, 2008.

Up to Date web site.

Vetinfo.com

Reviewed by Laura J. Martin, MD on May 19, 2016

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