It is possible that the main title of the report X-Linked Protoporphyria is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report.
- X-linked dominant protoporphyria
X-linked protoporphyria is an extremely rare genetic disorder characterized by an abnormal sensitivity to the sun (photosensitivity) that can cause severe pain, burning, and itching of sun-exposed skin. Symptoms may occur immediately or shortly after exposure to the sun, including direct exposure or indirect exposure such as sunlight that passes through window glass or that is reflected off water or sand. Redness and swelling of affected areas can also occur. Blistering and scarring usually do not occur. Chronic episodes of photosensitivity may lead to changes in the skin of sun-exposed areas. Some individuals eventually develop potentially severe liver disease. X-linked protoporphyria is caused by mutations of the ALAS2 gene and is inherited as an X-linked dominant trait. Males often develop a severe form of the disorder while females may not develop any symptoms (asymptomatic) or can develop a form as severe as that seen in males.
X-linked protoporphyria belongs to a group of disorders known as the porphyrias. This group of at least seven disorders is characterized by abnormally high levels of porphyrins and porphyrin precursors due to deficiency of certain enzymes essential to the creation (synthesis) of heme, a part of hemoglobin and other hemoproteins. There are eight enzymes in the pathway for making heme and at least eight different forms of porphyria. The symptoms associated with the various forms of porphyria differ. It is important to note that people who have one type of porphyria do not develop any of the other types. Porphyrias are generally classified into two groups: the "hepatic" and "erythropoietic" types. Porphyrins and porphyrin precursors and related substances originate in excess amounts chiefly from the liver in the hepatic types and mostly from the bone marrow in the erythropoietic types. Porphyrias with skin manifestations are sometimes referred to as "cutaneous porphyrias." The term "acute porphyria" is used to describe porphyrias that can be associated with sudden attacks of pain and other neurological symptoms.
X-linked protoporphyria is an erythropoietic form of porphyria and is extremely similar clinically to erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP). X-linked protoporphyria was first described in the medical literature in 2008.
CLIMB (Children Living with Inherited Metabolic Diseases)
176 Nantwich Road
Crewe, CW2 6BG
American Porphyria Foundation
4900 Woodway, Suite 780
Houston, TX 77056-1837
Erythropoietic Protoporphyria Research and Education Fund
Harvard Medical School
181 Longwood Avenue
Boston, MA 02115
British Porphyria Association
136 Devonshire Rd
Durham City, DH1 2BL
Genetic and Rare Diseases (GARD) Information Center
PO Box 8126
Gaithersburg, MD 20898-8126
Norwegian Porphyria Centre
Haukeland University Hospital
Jonas Liesvei 65