Skip to content

Stroke Health Center

Font Size

Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) - References


  1. Go AS, et al. (2014). Heart disease and stroke statistics-2014 update: A report from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 129(1): e28-e292. DOI: 10.1161/01.cir.0000441139.02102.80. Accessed January 24, 2014.

Other Works Consulted

  • Easton JD, et al. (2009). Definition and evaluation of transient ischemic attack: A scientific statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council; Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia; Council on Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; and the Interdisciplinary Council on Peripheral Vascular Disease. Stroke, 40(6): 2276-2293. Also available online:

  • ESPRIT Study Group (2006). Aspirin plus dipyridamole versus aspirin alone after cerebral ischaemia of arterial origin (ESPRIT): A randomized controlled trial. Lancet, 367(9523): 1665-1673.

  • Goff DC Jr, et al. (2013). 2013 ACC/AHA guideline on the assessment of cardiovascular risk: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation, published online November 12, 2013. DOI: 10.1161/01.cir.0000437741.48606.98. Accessed November 22, 2013.

  • Kernan WN, et al. (2014). Guidelines for the prevention of stroke in patients with stroke and transient ischemic attack: A guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke, 45(7): 2160-2236. DOI: 10.1161/STR.0000000000000024. Accessed July 22, 2014.

  • Lansberg MG, et al. (2012). Antithrombotic and thrombolytic therapy for ischemic stroke. Antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis, 9th ed. American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest, 141(2, Suppl): e601S-e636S. Also available online:

  • Rothwell PM, et al. (2007). Effect of urgent treatment of transient ischaemic attack and minor stroke on early recurrent stroke (EXPRESS study): A prospective population-based sequential comparison. Lancet, 370(9596): 1432-1442.

  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2008). 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (ODPHP Publication No. U0036). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Available online:

    WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise

    Last Updated: September 09, 2014
    This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
    Next Article:

    Today on WebMD

    brain illustration stroke
    Know these 5 signs.
    brain scans
    Test your stroke smarts.
    woman with migraine
    Is there a link?
    brain scan
    Get the facts.
    brain scans
    woman with migraine
    brain scan
    senior man stretching pre workout
    Floor level view of therapist helping stroke patie
    concerned woman
    Lowering Cholesterol Slideshow