When the FDA approved the first human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in 2006, it was big news. The new HPV vaccination made headlines at the time, which wasn't surprising, given that it was the very first vaccine approved to prevent cervical cancer.
Yet, even though the HPV vaccine has been around for years, not everyone knows exactly what it is or what it does. You might be wondering: How does it work? Is it safe? Should you or your child get it?
Did You Know?
Under the Affordable Care Act, many health insurance plans will cover preventive care services, including checkups, vaccinations and screening tests, at no cost to you. Learn more.
So you can be more confident when you talk to your doctor about the HPV vaccine, here are answers to these and other common questions about the vaccine.
What Is HPV?
HPV stands for human papillomavirus. It's a virus that can be transmitted through sexual contact. During intercourse or oral sex, HPV can make its way into the genitals, mouth, or throat and cause infection.
Sexually transmitted HPV comes in more than 40 different varieties. The type of the virus you get determines what effects it has on your body. Certain types of HPVcause genital warts. Other HPV types can make cells turn cancerous. You've probably heard that HPV causes cervical cancer, but it also causes less common cancers of the vulva, vagina, penis, anus, head, and neck.
What's tricky about HPV is that it doesn't have symptoms. There's no sore throat or fever to let you know you've been infected. Most people clear the infection on their own. In fact, you might have absolutely no idea you've been infected until you develop genital warts or have an abnormal Pap test.
Though HPV might not be as well known among sexually transmitted infections (STIs) as herpes or syphilis, it is actually the most common STI. If you're sexually active, there's a very good chance of being infected with HPV at some point in your life. That's why immunization is so important.
There are three HPV vaccines; what's the difference?
Three vaccines are available to protect against the types of HPV that cause most cervical, vaginal, vulvar, penile and anal cancers. They are Cervarix, Gardasil, and Gardasil-9. Gardasil, and Gardasil-9 also protect against most genital warts. Whichever of these vaccines you and your doctor choose, you should stick with the same vaccine for all three shots.