Citicoline is a natural chemical in the body. It seems to play a role in brain health. It's available as a supplement in the U.S. In other parts of the world, citicoline is sold as a drug. It's used to try and help sharpen thinking in people with blood flow problems in the brain.
Astaxanthin can also reduce inflammation. It might be useful as a treatment for problems that involve inflammation, such as:
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Laboratory research has found that an extract from algae that makes astaxanthin slowed the growth of breast and skin cancer cells.
Astaxanthin might help the heart in a number of ways as well. It may be helpful in preventing plaque buildup in arteries in the heart.
It may also help protect heart muscle from damage from lack of oxygen. This can happen during a heart attack.
Also, by reducing oxidation in the brain, it may protect against Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.
Astaxanthin may reduce the growth of H. pylori bacteria, which cause peptic ulcers. It may also help protect against kidney damage from diabetes. And it may stimulate the immune system.
More research is needed before astaxanthin can be recommended for any of these uses.
Supplement makers may suggest varying amounts of astaxanthin for different purposes. Most of the small research studies to date have used between 2 mg and 10 mg daily. However, optimal doses of astaxanthin have not been set for any condition. Quality and active ingredients in supplements may vary widely. This makes it very hard to set a standard dose.
Can you get astaxanthin naturally from foods?
One of the largest sources of astaxanthin is in certain types of marine algae.
Astaxanthin is also found in several types of seafood, including:
Four ounces of sockeye salmon contains about 4.5 milligrams of astaxanthin.
What are the risks of taking astaxanthin?
Side effects. Astaxanthin may hinder an enzyme called 5-alpha-reductase. As a result, it may keep testosterone from changing into the hormone DHT in the body. This might cause a number of side effects, such as: