D-mannose is a simple sugar found in many fruits. It is related to glucose. It also occurs naturally in some cells in the human body.
Other names for D-mannose are:
Glucosamine sulfate supplements are often made using shellfish. The substance can also be made in a laboratory.
Why do people take glucosamine sulfate?
Glucosamine sulfate is a widely used supplement that may help ease pain in people with knee osteoarthritis.
Osteoarthritis happens when cartilage breaks down. This can cause joint pain. Millions of people in the U.S. have osteoarthritis.
Scientists have been studying glucosamine sulfate alone, and together with another supplement called chondroitin, for many years. Research results have been conflicting.
Some studies show the supplement reduces knee pain in people with moderate-to-severe osteoarthritis. However, it doesn't seem to work as well in people who:
Have mild knee pain
Have had the condition for a long time
The supplement seems to reduce pain as much as ibuprofen. But it doesn't work as fast. It can take four to eight weeks for glucosamine sulfate to ease pain.
Some studies show that glucosamine sulfate may also work for:
Osteoarthritis of the hip or spine
Arthritis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in the jaw
A study in men also suggests that glucosamine sulfate may help a person bend and flex the knee better after a sudden knee injury.
Optimal doses of glucosamine sulfate have not been established. Supplement ingredients and quality may vary widely from maker to maker. This makes it hard to establish a standard dose.
The dose used in many studies to treat knee osteoarthritis was 500 milligrams, taken three times a day.
There are different forms of glucosamine. Check the supplement's ingredients. Some may contain glucosamine sulfate. Other supplements may have glucosamine hydrochloride or another type. Most studies have used glucosamine sulfate.
Glucosamine is sometimes found in skin creams used to treat arthritis pain. There is no proof that glucosamine can move through your skin. Scientists think the pain relief may be due to other ingredients in the cream.
Studies done in a laboratory dish hint that glucosamine sulfate may help fight HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. Much more comprehensive research is needed before scientists can say whether or not this supplement could be helpful for those with the virus.