Ginkgo Biloba for Memory Loss? With Caution
One of the top-selling herbs in the United States, ginkgo biloba has been used for thousands of years in traditional Chinese medicine.
A National Institute on Aging (NIH) ginkgo trial of more than 200 healthy adults older than 60 showed no improvement in memory or concentration. It is possible that doses higher than the 120 milligrams used daily in this six-week trial could be effective. Look for results of current large, long-term trials, such as the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine's study with 3,000 volunteers. These will help to confirm whether or not ginkgo biloba can help prevent dementia or enhance memory in healthy people.
Some research suggests that ginkgo biloba is effective for early-stage Alzheimer's disease. Ginkgo biloba may be as effective as acetylcholinesterase inhibitor drugs such as donepezil (Aricept). Studies have also indicated that ginkgo biloba may be helpful for cerebral insufficiency, a decreased flow of blood to the brain from clogged blood vessels.
However, a 2009 study in The Journal of the American Medical Assocation showed that compared with placebo, 120 mg twice daily of ginkgo biloba did not result in less cognitive decline in older adults with normal or only mild thinking impairment.
Ginkgo biloba is available in tablets, capsules, teas, and fortified foods. Do not use ginkgo biloba seeds, which can be very toxic. Tea bags often contain 30 milligrams of ginkgo biloba extract, while a typical dose used in ginkgo biloba studies is 80 to 240 milligrams of a standardized extract daily by mouth in two to three divided doses.
Although ginkgo biloba is generally safe, you should be aware of its blood-thinning properties. Stop using ginkgo biloba or use caution before surgery or dental procedures. Your risk for bleeding is also greater if you are taking blood thinners such as aspirin or warfarin. Also, it is possible that ginkgo biloba affects insulin or blood sugar. So be cautious if you have diabetes or hypoglycemia, or if you take substances that affect blood sugar.
Minor side effects of ginkgo biloba may include headache, nausea, or intestinal problems.