1,2,3,4,5,6-Cyclohexanehexol, 1,2,5/3,4,6-inositol, (1S)-inositol, (1S)-1,2,4/3,5,6-inositol, Antialopecia Factor, (+)-chiroinositol, cis-1,2,3,5-trans-4,6-Cyclohexanehexol, Cyclohexitol, Dambrose, D-chiro-inositol, D-Myo-Inositol, Facteur Anti-alopécique, Hexahydroxycyclohexane, Inose, Inosite, Inositol Monophosphate, Lipositol, Meso-Inositol, Méso-Inositol, Monophosphate d'Inositol, Mouse Antialopecia Factor, Myo-Inositol, Vitamin B8, Vitamine B8.<br/><br/>
Overview InformationInositol is a vitamin-like substance. It is found in many plants and animals. It is also produced in the human body and can be made in a laboratory. Inositol can be found in many forms (called isomers). The most common forms are myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol.
Some people take inositol by mouth for diabetes, nerve problems caused by diabetes, diabetes diagnosed during pregnancy (gestational diabetes), treating a disorder called metabolic syndrome and conditions associated with menopause and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), including failure to ovulate, high blood pressure, high triglycerides, and high levels of testosterone. It is also used for depression, schizophrenia, autism, Alzheimer's disease, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), compulsive hair pulling (trichotillomania), panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and anxiety disorders, but there is limited scientific evidence to support these uses.
It is also taken by mouth to prevent complications during pregnancy such as neural tube birth defects (birth defects that involve the brain and spinal cord) and for preventing the side effects of a drug called lithium.
Inositol is also given by mouth or intravenously (by IV) to premature babies to with acute respiratory distress syndrome.
How does it work?Inositol might balance certain chemicals in the body to possibly help with mental conditions such as panic disorder, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. It might also help insulin work better. This might help with conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome or diabetes during pregnancy.
Uses & Effectiveness
Possibly Effective for
- Diabetes during pregnancy (gestational diabetes). Taking a certain form of inositol called myo-inositol along with folic acid during pregnancy seems to reduce the chance of developing diabetes during pregnancy by 60% to 92% in women who are at risk. Lower doses of inositol taken without folic acid don’t seem to work.
- Side effects caused by lithium. Taking inositol by mouth seems to improve psoriasis, a skin condition caused by lithium. But it doesn't seem to help psoriasis in people not taking lithium. Inositol doesn't seem to improve other side effects caused by lithium.
- Metabolic syndrome. Taking inositol with or without alpha-lipoic acid seems to improve insulin resistance, cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and blood pressure in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome.
- Panic disorder. Inositol shows some promise for controlling panic attacks and the fear of public places or open spaces (agoraphobia). One study found that inositol is as effective as a prescription medication. However, larger clinical studies are needed before inositol's effectiveness for panic attacks can be proven.
- An ovary disorder known as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Taking particular forms of inositol (D-chiro-inositol or myo-inositol) by mouth seems to lower triglyceride and testosterone levels, modestly decrease blood pressure, and improve the function of the ovaries in overweight or obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Myo-inositol may be as effective as the prescription drug metformin. Some research also shows that taking the two forms of inositol together improves ovulation better than taking D-chiro-inositol alone. Also, the combination seems to improve blood pressure, blood sugar, and blood insulin levels better than taking myo-inositol alone.
- A breathing problem in premature babies known as "acute respiratory distress syndrome". Giving inositol intravenously (by IV) to premature babies with respiratory distress syndrome seems to improve breathing. Also, giving these babies inositol by mouth or intravenously (by IV) seems to decrease the risk of death, the risk of developing a condition that can cause blindness, or the risk of bleeding in the brain.
Possibly Ineffective for
- Alzheimer's disease. Taking inositol by mouth doesn't seem to improve symptoms of Alzheimer's disease.
- Anxiety. Taking inositol by mouth doesn't seem to improve the severity of anxiety symptoms.
- Autism. Taking inositol by mouth doesn't seem to improve symptoms of autism.
- Depression. Most research shows that inositol doesn't improve symptoms of depression. While some early research shows that depressed people receiving inositol for 4 weeks may improve at first, they seem to get worse again after a while. There was also some expectation that inositol might make antidepressant medications called SSRIs work better. But research so far hasn't shown this to be true.
- Schizophrenia. Taking inositol by mouth doesn't seem to improve symptoms of schizophrenia.
Likely InEffective for
- Nerve problems caused by diabetes. Taking inositol by mouth doesn't improve the symptoms of nerve pain caused by diabetes.
Insufficient Evidence for
- Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Early studies show inositol might not help improve ADHD symptoms.
- Bipolar disorder. Early research in children with bipolar disorder shows that taking inositol with a certain omega-3 fatty acid improves mania and depressive symptoms.
- Diabetes. Early research shows that taking a combination of folic acid and a form of inositol called D-chiro-inositol decreases blood glucose more than taking folic acid by itself in overweight people with type I diabetes.
- Lung cancer. Early research shows that taking inositol does not reverse the growth of pre-cancer cells in people at high risk for lung cancer.
- Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). There is some evidence that people with OCD who receive inositol by mouth for 6 weeks experience an improvement in OCD symptoms. However, inositol doesn't seem to improve OCD symptoms in people already being treated with medications called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.
- Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Early research shows that taking inositol by mouth doesn't improve distress in people with PTSD.
- Pregnancy-associated complication. Taking a certain form of inositol (isomer myo-inositol) plus folic acid by mouth during pregnancy seems to reduce the number of babies weighing more than 8 pounds 13 ounces at birth. However, the combination doesn't seem to reduce high blood pressure during pregnancy, the risk of preterm delivery, the rate of caesarean section, or the risk of the baby having a certain breathing problem after birth.
- Compulsive hair pulling (trichotillomania). Taking inositol by mouth doesn't seem to improve symptoms of compulsive hair pulling.
- Hair growth.
- High cholesterol.
- Problems metabolizing fat.
- Trouble sleeping (insomnia).
- Other conditions.
Side Effects & SafetyInositol is POSSIBLY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth. It can cause nausea, stomach pain, tiredness, headache, and dizziness.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Children: Inositol is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth for short periods of time (up to 12 weeks) in children ages 5-12 years-old. It is also POSSIBLY SAFE when used in the hospital for premature infants with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Inositol is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth during pregnancy. Not enough is known about the use of inositol during breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Bipolar disorder:There is some concern that taking too much inositol might make bipolar disorder worse. There is a report of a man with controlled bipolar disorder being sent to the hospital with extreme agitation and impulsiveness (mania) after drinking several cans of an energy drink containing inositol, caffeine, taurine, and other ingredients (Red Bull Energy Drink) over a period of 4 days. It is not known if this is related to inositol, caffeine, taurine, a different ingredient, or a combination of the ingredients.
Diabetes: Inositol may lower blood sugar and hemoglobin A1c levels. Watch for signs of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and monitor your blood sugar carefully if you have diabetes and use inositol.
We currently have no information for INOSITOL Interactions.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For diabetes during pregnancy (gestational diabetes): 2 grams of a certain form of inositol (isomer myo-inositol) plus 200 mg of folic acid have been taken twice per day beginning during the first trimester of pregnancy.
- For treating lithium-related psoriasis: 6 grams of inositol has been taken daily.
- For metabolic syndrome: 2 grams of a certain form of inositol (isomer myo-inositol) has been taken twice per day for one year.
- For panic disorder: 12-18 grams of inositol has been taken daily.
- For treating symptoms associated with polycystic ovary syndrome: 1000 to 1200 mg of a certain form of inositol (isomer D-chiro-inositol) has been used. Also, a product containing 4 grams of another form of inositol (isomer myo-inositol) plus 400 mcg of folic acid has been taken daily for up to 6 months. A specific product containing 550 mg of myo-inositol and 13.8 mg of D-chiro-inositol has also been taken twice daily for up to 6 months.
- For complications during pregnancy: 2 grams of a certain form of inositol (isomer myo-inositol) plus 200 mg of folic acid has been taken twice per day beginning during the first trimester of pregnancy.
- For a breathing problem in premature infants called respiratory distress syndrome: 120-160 mg/kg of inositol or 2500 mcmol/L of inositol has been used in the hospital.
- For a breathing problem in premature infants called respiratory distress syndrome: 80-160 mg/kg of inositol has been used in the hospital.
- Colodny L, Hoffman RL. Inositol--clinical applications for exogenous use. Altern Med Rev 1998;3:432-47. View abstract.
- Crawford TJ, Crowther CA, Alsweiler J, Brown J. Antenatal dietary supplementation with myo-inositol in women during pregnancy for preventing gestational diabetes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(12):CD011507. View abstract.
- D'Anna R, Scilipoti A, Giordano D, et al. myo-Inositol supplementation and onset of gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant women with a family history of type 2 diabetes: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Diabetes Care 2013;36(4):854-7. View abstract.
- Farren M, Daly N, McKeating A, Kinsley B, Turner MJ, Daly S. The Prevention of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus With Antenatal Oral Inositol Supplementation: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Diabetes Care. 2017;40(6):759-63. View abstract.
- Fruzzetti F, Perini D, Russo M, Bucci F, Gadducci A. Comparison of two insulin sensitizers, metformin and myo-inositol, in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Gynecol Endocrinol. 2017;33(1):39-42. View abstract.
- Fux M, Benjamin J, Belmaker RH. Inositol versus placebo augmentation of serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a double-blind cross-over study. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 1999 Sep;2(3):193-195. View abstract.
- Fux M, Levine J, Aviv A, Belmaker RH. Inositol treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1996;153:1219-21. View abstract.
- Goodman GA, Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P. The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed.
- Gregersen G, Bertelsen B, Harbo H, et al. Oral supplementation of myoinositol: effects on peripheral nerve function in human diabetics and on the concentration in plasma, erythrocytes, urine and muscle tissue in human diabetics and normals. Acta Neurol Scand 1983;67:164-72. View abstract.
- Gregersen G, Borsting H, Theil P, Servo C. Myoinositol and function of peripheral nerves in human diabetics. A controlled clinical trial. Acta Neurol Scand 1978;58:241-8. View abstract.
- Hallman M, et al. Inositol supplementation in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 1992;326:1233-9. View abstract.
- Hallman M, Pohjavuori M, Bry K. Inositol supplementation in respiratory distress syndrome. Lung 1990;168:877-82. View abstract.
- Abbruzzese, M. R., Delaha, E. C., and Garagusi, V. F. Absence of antimycobacterial synergism between garlic extract and antituberculosis drugs. Diagn.Microbiol.Infect.Dis. 1987;8(2):79-85. View abstract.
- Adachi, A. [Two cases of eosinophilic gastroenteritis whose causative allergens are usefully diagnosed by patch test]. Arerugi 2010;59(5):545-551. View abstract.
- Adetumbi, M., Javor, G. T., and Lau, B. H. Allium sativum (garlic) inhibits lipid synthesis by Candida albicans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1986;30(3):499-501. View abstract.
- Ahmad, M. S., Pischetsrieder, M., and Ahmed, N. Aged garlic extract and S-allyl cysteine prevent formation of advanced glycation endproducts. Eur.J Pharmacol. 4-30-2007;561(1-3):32-38. View abstract.
- Ahmadi, N., Tsimikas, S., Hajsadeghi, F., Saeed, A., Nabavi, V., Bevinal, M. A., Kadakia, J., Flores, F., Ebrahimi, R., and Budoff, M. J. Relation of oxidative biomarkers, vascular dysfunction, and progression of coronary artery calcium. Am.J.Cardiol. 2-15-2010;105(4):459-466. View abstract.
- Alder, R., Lookinland, S., Berry, J. A., and Williams, M. A systematic review of the effectiveness of garlic as an anti-hyperlipidemic agent. J Am Acad.Nurse Pract. 2003;15(3):120-129. View abstract.
- Ali, M. and Thomson, M. Consumption of a garlic clove a day could be beneficial in preventing thrombosis. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 1995;53(3):211-212. View abstract.
- Ali, M. Mechanism by which garlic (Allium sativum) inhibits cyclooxygenase activity. Effect of raw versus boiled garlic extract on the synthesis of prostanoids. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 1995;53(6):397-400. View abstract.
- Harwood AJ. Lithium and bipolar mood disorder: the inositol-depletion hypothesis revisited. Mol Psychiatry 2005;10:117-26. View abstract.
- Howlett A, Ohlsson A, Plakkal N. Inositol in preterm infants at risk for or having respiratory distress syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015;2:CD000366. View abstract.
- Kamenov Z, Kolarov G, Gateva A, Carlomagno G, Genazzani AD. Ovulation induction with myo-inositol alone and in combination with clomiphene citrate in polycystic ovarian syndrome patients with insulin resistance. Gynecol Endocrinol 2015;31(2):131-5. View abstract.
- Kaplan Z, Amir M, Swartz M, Levine J. Inositol treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Anxiety 1996;2(1):51-2. View abstract.
- Lam S, Mandrekar SJ, Gesthalter Y. A Randomized Phase IIb Trial of myo-Inositol in Smokers with Bronchial Dysplasia. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2016;9(12):906-14. View abstract.
- Leppink EW, Redden SA, Grant JE. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of inositol in trichotillomania. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2017;32(2):107-14. View abstract.
- Levine J, Aviram A, Holan A, et al. Inositol treatment of autism. J Neural Transm 1997;104:307-10. View abstract.
- Levine J, Barak Y, Gonzalves M, et al. Double-blind, controlled trial of inositol treatment of depression. Am J Psychiatry 1995;152:792-4. View abstract.
- Levine J, Barak Y, Kofman O, Belmaker RH. Follow-up and relapse analysis of an inositol study of depression. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci 1995;32:14-21. View abstract.
- Levine J, Goldberger I, Rapaport A, et al. CSF inositol in schizophrenia and high-dose inositol treatment of schizophrenia. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 1994;4:487-90. View abstract.
- Levine J, Mishori A, Susnosky M, et al. Combination of inositol and serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the treatment of depression. Biol Psychiatry 1999;45:270-3. View abstract.
- Levine J. Controlled trials of inositol in psychiatry. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 1997;7:147-55. View abstract.
- Machado-Vieira R, Viale CI, Kapczinski F. Mania associated with an energy drink: the possible role of caffeine, taurine, and inositol. Can J Psychiatry 2001;46:454-5. View abstract.
- Matarrelli B, Vitacolonna E, D'Angelo M, et al. Effect of dietary myo-inositol supplementation in pregnancy on the incidence of maternal gestational diabetes mellitus and fetal outcomes: a randomized controlled trial. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2013;26(10):967-72. View abstract.
- Maurizi AR, Menduni M, Del Toro R, et al. A pilot study of D-chiro-inositol plus folic acid in overweight patients with type 1 diabetes. Acta Diabetol. 2017;54(4):361-65. View abstract.
- Mukai T, Kishi T, Matsuda Y, Iwata N. A meta-analysis of inositol for depression and anxiety disorders. Hum Psychopharmacol 2014;29(1):55-63. View abstract.
- Nemets B, Mishory A, Levine J, Belmaker RH. Inositol addition does not improve depression in SSRI treatment failures. J Neural Transm 1999;106:795-8. View abstract.
- Nestler JE, Jakubowicz DJ, Reamer P, et al. Ovulatory and metabolic effects of D-chiro-inositol in the polycystic ovary syndrome. N Engl J Med 1999;340:1314-20. View abstract.
- Nomenclature of Cyclitols. IUPAC Commission on the Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry (CNOC) and IUPAC-IUB Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature (CBN). Available at: http://www.chem.qmw.ac.uk/iupac/cyclitol/ (Accessed 23 January 2004).
- Nordio M, Proietti E. The combined therapy with myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol reduces the risk of metabolic disease in PCOS overweight patients compared to myo-inositol supplementation alone. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2012;16(5):575-81. View abstract.
- Palatnik A, Frolov K, Fux M, Benjamin J. Double-blind, controlled, crossover trial of inositol versus fluvoxamine for the treatment of panic disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2001;21:335-9.. View abstract.
- Phelps DL, Ward RM, Williams RL, et al. Pharmacokinetics and safety of a single intravenous dose of myo-inositol in preterm infants of 23-29 wk. Pediatr Res 2013;74(6):721-9. View abstract.
- Phelps DL, Ward RM, Williams RL, et al. Safety and pharmacokinetics of multiple dose myo-inositol in preterm infants. Pediatr Res. 2016;80(2):209-17. View abstract.
- Pizzo A, Laganà AS, Barbaro L. Comparison between effects of myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol on ovarian function and metabolic factors in women with PCOS. Gynecol Endocrinol 2014;30(3):205-8. View abstract.
- Sacchinelli A, Venturella R, Lico D, et al. The efficacy of inositol and N-acetyl cysteine administration (Ovaric HP) in improving the ovarian function in infertile women with PCOS with or without insulin resistance. Obstet Gynecol Int 2014;2014:141020. View abstract.
- Salway JG, Whitehead L, Finnegan JA. Effect of myo-inositol on peripheral-nerve function in diabetes. Lancet 1978;2:1282-4. View abstract.
- Santamaria A, Giordano D, Corrado F, et al. One-year effects of myo-inositol supplementation in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. Climacteric 2012;15(5):490-5. View abstract.
- Shaldubina A, Stahl Z, Furszpan M, et al. Inositol deficiency diet and lithium effects. Bipolar Disord 2006;8:152-9. View abstract.
- Shaltiel G, Shamir A, Shapiro J, et al. Valproate decreases inositol biosynthesis. Biol Psychiatry 2004;56:868-74. View abstract.
- Souza FG, Mander AJ, Foggo M, et al. The effects of lithium discontinuation and the non-effect of oral inositol upon thyroid hormones and cortisol in patients with bipolar affective disorder. J Affect Disord 1991;22:165-70. View abstract.
- Tagliaferri V, Romualdi D, Immediata V, et al. Metformin vs myoinositol: which is better in obese polycystic ovary syndrome patients? A randomized controlled crossover study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2017;86(5):725-30. View abstract.
- Williams RS, Cheng L, Mudge AW, Harwood AJ. A common mechanism of action for three mood-stabilizing drugs. Nature 2002;417:292-5. View abstract.
- Wozniak J, Faraone SV, Chan J, et al. A randomized clinical trial of high eicosapentaenoic acid omega-3 fatty acids and inositol as monotherapy and in combination in the treatment of pediatric bipolar spectrum disorders: a pilot study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2015;76(11):1548-55. View abstract.
- Zheng X, Liu Z, Zhang Y, et al. Relationship Between Myo-Inositol Supplementary and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2015;94(42):e1604. View abstract.
Have you ever purchased INOSITOL?
Did you or will you purchase this product in-store or online?
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
What factors influenced or will influence your purchase? (check all that apply)
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
Do you buy vitamins online or instore?
What factors are most important to you? (check all that apply)