Curbing the Violence.
Is Sooner Better?
A misperception exists that victims of dating violence come from abusive homes. Experts say that nearly half of teenage girls in abusive relationships have never witnessed violence at home and often come from educated, middle- or upper-class homes. While studies do reveal huge variations depending on the population sampled and the exact definition of abuse, it is considered reasonable to estimate that at least 25% of teenagers will experience dating violence.
"There is huge social pressure to be in a heterosexual relationship on every high school campus I've been on," says Sims. "Teens have it difficult because the opinions of their peer group are so important to them. Teens also have less experience. They might not know what is inappropriate. Even with a healthy family, parents might not have sat them down, saying what to expect out of a relationship."
Targeting prevention efforts at teenagers seems a natural part of the movement to combat violence in the home, a movement that began more than 30 years ago. Early efforts have included responses such as shelters for battered women and rape crisis centers. Sims says advocates realized they had to "go further upstream" and educate women sooner. The first such programs began around 10 years ago, but there has been a national push in the last five years to reach adolescents.
"There is a lot of stigma and shame being in an abusive relationship," says Barri Rosenbluth, director of school-based services at Safe Place in Austin, Texas, which runs "Expect Respect," a school-based prevention and intervention program. "Girls will say, 'I would never be with somebody who would hit me.' If it happened on the first date, they probably wouldn't. But if they have a lot committed to the relationship, like they have already had sex, they feel like they have a lot to lose."
While advocates acknowledge a lack of scientific studies of the effectiveness of dating violence prevention programs targeted at teenagers, the few published evaluations show at least some promising results. Writing in the October 2000 issue of the American Journal of Public Health, researchers from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill reported that a year after participating in "Safe Dates," an adolescent dating violence prevention program, teenagers reported less psychological and physical abuse involving their dating partners. The researchers wrote that changes in dating violence norms -- that is, what might be tolerated -- gender stereotyping, and awareness of counseling and intervention services could explain the program's positive effects. They plan on following the teenagers for five years following their participation in Safe Dates.
But experts say several barriers, including a lack of funding and initial hesitance by school officials, make implementation and evaluation of such programs difficult.
"School districts and school boards are political animals and have been hesitant to take it on," says Revoy. While inroads are being made in schools, "it is another item on a full plate for teachers. There is concern for the child's well-being because [the school] may not know the proper resources or referrals."