Pelvic exam. This exam may reveal a lump in the pelvic area.
Ultrasound. This scan uses sound waves to create an image of the ovaries. This helps the doctor determine the size and location of a cyst.
Treatment of ovarian cysts
Watchful waiting. Most ovarian cysts will go away on their own. If you don't have any bothersome symptoms, especially if you haven't yet gone through menopause, your doctor may advocate "watchful waiting." The doctor won't treat you. Instead, the doctor might check you periodically to see if there has been any change in your condition.
Laparoscopy. This is a form of surgery that uses small incisions and a tiny, lighted camera on the end of a plastic tube that's inserted into the abdomen. A surgeon can use tools on the end of the tube to remove some cysts. This technique works for smaller cysts. Larger cysts, though, may need to be removed through a bigger incision in the abdomen. This is done with a technique called laparotomy.
Laparotomy. This is surgery performed through an incision into the abdomen. The surgeon will remove as much of the tumor as possible. The removal of tumor tissue is called debulking. If the tumor is cancerous and has spread, the surgeon may also remove the ovaries, uterus, fallopian tubes, omentum (fatty tissue covering the intestines), and nearby lymph nodes.
Chemotherapy. Chemotherapy involves drugs given through a vein (IV), by mouth, or directly into the abdomen. The drugs kill cancer cells. Because they kill normal cells as well, chemotherapy medications can have side effects. These can include nausea and vomiting, hair loss, kidney damage, and increased risk of infection. These side effects should go away after the treatment is stopped.
Radiation. This treatment uses high-energy X-rays to kill or shrink cancer cells. Radiation is either delivered from outside the body, or placed inside the body near the site of the tumor. This treatment also can cause side effects. These can include inflamed skin, nausea, diarrhea, and fatigue. Radiation is not often used to treat ovarian cancer.