Find Information About:

Drugs & Supplements

Get information and reviews on prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications, vitamins, and supplements. Search by name or medical condition.

Pill Identifier

Pill Identifier

Having trouble identifying your pills?

Enter the shape, color, or imprint of your prescription or OTC drug. Our pill identification tool will display pictures that you can compare to your pill.

Get Started

My Medicine

Save your medicine, check interactions, sign up for FDA alerts, create family profiles and more.

Get Started

WebMD Health Experts and Community

Talk to health experts and other people like you in WebMD's Communities. It's a safe forum where you can create or participate in support groups and discussions about health topics that interest you.

  • Second Opinion

    Second Opinion

    Read expert perspectives on popular health topics.

  • Community


    Connect with people like you, and get expert guidance on living a healthy life.

Got a health question? Get answers provided by leading organizations, doctors, and experts.

Get Answers

Sign up to receive WebMD's award-winning content delivered to your inbox.

Sign Up

Women's Health

Select An Article

Pelvic Organ Prolapse

Font Size

Causes of Pelvic Organ Prolapse

A network of muscles provides the main support for the pelvic viscera (the vagina and the surrounding tissues and organs within the pelvis). This network, which is located below most of the pelvic viscera and supports the viscera’s weight, is called the levator ani. Pelvic ligaments provide additional stabilizing support.

When parts of this support network are weakened or damaged, the vagina and surrounding structures may lose some or all of the support that holds them in place. Collectively, this condition is called pelvic floor relaxation. A pelvic organ prolapse occurs when the weight-bearing or stabilizing structures that keep the vagina in place weaken or deteriorate. This may cause the supports for the rectum, bladder, uterus, small bladder, urethra, or a combination of them to become less stable.

Common factors that may cause a vaginal prolapse include the following:

  • Childbirth (especially multiple births): Childbirth is stressful to the tissues, muscles, and ligaments in and around the vagina. Long, difficult labors and large babies are especially stressful to these structures. Childbirth is the risk factor most commonly associated with cystoceles. A cystocele is a condition in which the bladder prolapses into the vagina. A cystocele is usually accompanied by a urethrocele, in which the urethra becomes displaced and prolapses. A cystocele and urethrocele together are called a cystourethrocele.
  • Menopause: Estrogen is a hormone that helps to keep the muscles and tissues of the pelvic support structure strong. After menopause, the estrogen level decreases; this means that the support structures may weaken.
  • Hysterectomy: The uterus is an important part of the support structure at the top of the vagina. A hysterectomy involves removing the uterus. Without the uterus, the top of the vagina may gradually fall toward the vaginal opening. This condition is called a vaginal vault prolapse. As the top of the vagina droops, added stress is placed on other ligaments. Hysterectomy is also commonly associated with a condition called an enterocele, in which the small bowel herniates near the top of the vagina.

Other risk factors of pelvic organ prolapse include the following:

  • Advanced age
  • Obesity
  • Dysfunction of the nerves and tissues
  • Abnormalities of the connective tissue
  • Strenuous physical activity
  • Prior pelvic surgery

Next Article:

Today on WebMD

hands on abdomen
Test your knowledge.
womans hand on abdomen
Are you ready for baby?
birth control pills
Learn about your options.
Is it menopause or something else?
woman in bathtub
bp app on smartwatch and phone
estrogen gene

Send yourself a link to download the app.

Loading ...

Please wait...

This feature is temporarily unavailable. Please try again later.


Now check your email account on your mobile phone to download your new app.

Blood pressure check
hot water bottle on stomach
Attractive young woman standing in front of mirror