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Women's Health

Medical Reference Related to Women's Health

  1. Bartholin Gland Cyst - Frequently Asked Questions

    Learning about Bartholin gland cyst: What is a Bartholin gland cyst? What does a Bartholin gland cyst look like? How is a Bartholin gland cyst removed? ...

  2. Pap Test: Classification of Cell Changes - Topic Overview

    Cervical cell changes are classified according to their degree of abnormality using the Bethesda system (TBS). Further evaluation decisions are guided by the kinds of changes seen in the cells. Minor cell changes Minor cervical cell changes are also called: Atypical squamous cells (ASC). ASC is further classified as: ASC of undetermined significance (ASC-US). ASC that cannot exclude ...

  3. Abnormal Pap Test - Cause

    Most abnormal Pap tests are caused by HPV infections. Other types of infection—such as those caused by bacteria, yeast, or protozoa (Trichomonas)—sometimes lead to minor changes on a Pap test called atypical squamous cells. Natural cell changes that may happen during and after menopause can also cause an abnormal Pap test.What increases your risk of having an abnormal test result?Certain sexual behaviors—such as having sex without condoms and having more than one sex partner—increase your risk of getting an HPV infection. And an HPV infection raises your risk for having abnormal test results.Other things that may also play a role in increasing your risk include:Smoking.Having an impaired immune system.Having been exposed to the drug DES while your mother was pregnant with you, though this is rare.If you have had one abnormal Pap test result, you're more likely to have another in the future.

  4. Abnormal Pap Test - Treatment

    The type of treatment you have will depend on what caused the abnormal test results.Infection: If your abnormal test results were caused by a vaginal infection or a sexually transmitted infection, you can be treated with medicine.Menopause: Women near menopause may have abnormal results because of normal body changes during menopause. These minor cell changes may improve with the use of estrogen cream.Moderate or severe cell changes, such as HSIL. Your treatment will focus on destroying or removing the abnormal tissue. Treatment choices include:Cone biopsy.Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP), which uses a thin, low-voltage electrified wire loop to cut out abnormal cervical cells. Cryotherapy, which destroys abnormal cervical cells by freezing them.Laser therapy, which uses a laser beam to destroy abnormal cervical cells. For cervical cancer, treatment will focus on destroying or removing the cancer. To learn more, see the topic Cervical Cancer.A pregnant woman with an

  5. Pap Test: Collecting Cells in Liquid - Topic Overview

    Liquid-based methods for collecting cervical cells and preparing them for laboratory evaluation are now available. A sample of cervical cells is collected during a Pap test,and the cells are then rinsed in a liquid vial instead of being smeared on slides. The vials are taken to the laboratory,and a thin layer of the specimen is put on slides for microscopic examination. Only a small portion ...

  6. Abnormal Pap Test - Types of Results

    Lab specialists label abnormal cells according to how abnormal they are—how different they are from normal cells. Knowing what type of abnormal cells you have helps your doctor decide on treatment.Minor cell changesMinor cell changes may disappear without treatment. But sometimes they turn into more serious cell changes. Types of minor cell changes are:ASC-US or ASC-H. These are changes for which the cause is unknown. ASC-US changes usually stay the same or return to normal. ASC-H changes are also minor but have a higher likelihood of becoming more serious. LSIL. These changes may be more likely to become more severe over time, but even when they do, they usually return to normal.Moderate to severe cell changesModerate to severe cell changes—HSIL and AGC—are more likely to be precancerous and turn into cervical cancer if left untreated.In some countries, other labeling systems are used. These systems may use the term dysplasia to describe cervical cell changes. Or they may

  7. Abnormal Pap Test - Follow-Up Tests

    When your Pap test result is abnormal, you always need to follow up with your doctor. Often this just means having regular checkups and Pap tests. But sometimes it means more tests or treatment. It's very important to complete any further testing that your doctor recommends.Watchful waitingMost women won't need special testing or treatment. Instead, they'll follow a schedule of regular Pap tests to watch for cell changes. This is called watchful waiting. It may be recommended when: You have a treatable infection in the vagina or cervix.You have an HPV infection. Most low-risk types of HPV go away on their own within 6 to 18 months.Your cell changes are minor.It's okay to do nothing but watch and wait, because minor cell changes such as ASC-US or LSIL don't usually become more severe during a short period of watchful waiting.Watchful waiting may not be a good choice if you don't think you'll be able to follow your doctor's recommendations about having regular Pap tests. Talk with your

  8. The Bethesda System (TBS) - Topic Overview

    The Bethesda system (TBS) of classifying Pap tests was developed by the United States National Cancer Institute (NCI) to provide more detailed information about Pap test results. When lab specialists examine cervical cells,they use this system to report the lab results to doctors. Your doctor receives the report from the lab. The report tells your doctor if the cell sample taken during the ...

  9. Abnormal Pap Test - Topic Overview

    What is an abnormal Pap test?When your doctor says that your Pap test, or Pap smear, was abnormal, it means that the test found some cells on your cervix that do not look normal.A Pap test may be done as part of a woman's routine physical exam, because it's the best way to prevent cervical cancer. But having an abnormal test result doesn't mean you have cancer. In fact, the chances that you have cancer are very small.What causes an abnormal Pap test?Most of the time, the abnormal cell changes are caused by certain types of human papillomavirus, or HPV. HPV is a sexually transmitted infection. Usually these cell changes go away on their own. But certain types of HPV have been linked to cervical cancer. That's why regular Pap tests are so important. Sometimes the changed cells are due to other types of infection, such as those caused by bacteria or yeast. These infections can be treated. In women who have been through menopause, a Pap test may find cell changes that are just the result

  10. Abnormal Pap Test While Pregnant - Topic Overview

    Pregnancy does not seem to increase the progression of abnormal cervical cell changes. The presence of abnormal cervical cell changes or HPV does not affect the outcome of the pregnancy. Close monitoring is needed so that you and your health professional can make the best treatment decisions at each stage of the pregnancy. An abnormal Pap test may be evaluated further with colposcopy. ...

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