A tubal ligation is considered a permanent method of
birth control. A mini-laparotomy ("mini-lap") involves
a smaller incision [usually less than
2 in. (5.1 cm) long] than a
regular laparotomy. The incision may be made just at or above the pubic
fallopian tubes are pulled up into or out of the
incision, tied off, and then put back into place.
is favored for women who have had prior abdominal or pelvic surgery or who have
heart or respiratory diseases.
Josie Richardson was surprised when her dentist suggested she get braces. Although she'd always been embarrassed by her overlapping teeth, at 46 she'd resigned herself to her imperfect smile. But when the dentist pointed out that it was more than just a cosmetic issue -it's harder to clean between crooked teeth -Richardson, a jewelry designer in Boca Raton, FL, signed on for the mouthful of hardware normally associated with teens. Indeed, soon after, she and her 14-year-old son became a matched pair...