Women Misinformed About HPV-Cancer Link
Media Coverage of HPV Testing Blurs Cervical Cancer Link
Dec. 3, 2003 -- Few women have heard of the most common
sexually transmitted disease, and even if they have they are probably
New research shows that women are confused about the link
between the human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer, and recent media
coverage of HPV has only added to that confusion.
Two studies in the Jan. 15 issue of Cancer highlight the
gaps in women's knowledge about HPV and assess the media's job of covering the
common sexually transmitted disease (STD).
What Women Don't Know About HPV
Researchers say that in the last decade it's become clear that
about 20 of the suspected 230 different types of HPV are considered high risk
due to their association with cervical cancer. In addition, the HPV types
associated with genital warts are now considered low risk because they are
rarely associated with cervical cancer.
But the results of eight focus groups with 48 ethnically
diverse women show that there are still serious gaps in women's knowledge about
the link between HPV and cervical cancer. Most of the women in the study had
reported that they had never heard of HPV. Researchers found that in women who
were aware of the association between the virus and cervical cancer, most
overestimated the likelihood that women infected with HPV would develop
cervical cancer, and few were aware that HPV infection often goes away on its
own without treatment.
Many women were also confused that Pap smear results could be
normal even if HPV was present, and most women were focused on the fact that
HPV is a sexually transmitted disease rather than its potential to cause
Media Coverage of HPV
In the second study, researchers analyzed the content of 111
new stories about HPV from the 10 most circulated newspapers and the major
broadcast television networks from January 1995 through July 2002.
Researchers found 36% of the stories were about new genetic
tests for HPV, 30% of the stories focused on cervical cancer or its link to
HPV, and 27% emphasized sexually transmitted diseases or genital warts.
The study showed that many stories failed to include basic
information about HPV that women in the first study expressed interest in
knowing, which heightens their anxiety about the condition.
For example, most of the stories (79%) mentioned the fact that
HPV is an STD, but only half reported that it's very common. Only about a
quarter of the reports stated that most women with HPV will not develop
Many of the stories were also missing vital information on HPV
prevention, transmission, and symptoms. Even if the stories presented using
condoms as a means of preventing HPV infection, few mentioned research that
shows condoms are imperfect at blocking HPV infection.
Researchers say that infection with HPV usually does not cause
any symptoms and does not always produce visible genital warts.