Even though they provide nutrition to babies in the womb, the umbilical cord and placenta get little attention once they emerge into the world. But medical advances have given many couples a reason to give these often overshadowed tissues a second look.
As of 2017, more than 40,000 cord blood transplants had been performed in the U.S. and more than 25,000 lives saved as a result.
What Is Cord Blood Banking?
Cord blood banking is a process of collecting potentially life-saving stem cells from the umbilical cord and placenta and storing them for future use. Stem cells are immature cells that can assume the form of other cells. They can be used to treat several diseases, including leukemia, lymphoma, anemia, and some immune system disorders.
If you choose to bank cord blood cells, you'll need to make arrangements ahead of time -- usually about two months before your delivery. Soon after your twins' birth, a nurse or doctor will collect the cord blood and a segment of the cord make sure it goes to the facility where it will be processed, frozen, and stored.
Why You May Choose Cord Blood Banking
You may consider cord blood banking for any number of reasons. If your family has a history of disease that can be treated with cord blood, you may consider this option in case one of your twins or another family member develops the condition. Or you may choose to bank cord blood just in case one of your twins becomes ill, even if you have no family history.
Limits of Cord Blood Banking
The primary drawback of cord banking is that it is only beneficial in very rare situations.
The likelihood of a child using from his own stem cells is 1 in 5,000 in the U.S.; the odds of him having an illness that would benefit from properly matched banked cord blood is 1 in 2,500, though some experts think it is even less useful than that.
Stem cells from cord blood can be used to treat some, but not all diseases. If one of your twins is born with a genetic disorder or develops a childhood leukemia, the cord blood likely contains the same code that caused the problem in the first place. It cannot be used to treat either twin or any other person.
Cord blood cells from one healthy twin can be used to treat your other twin or another ill child, as long as the two are a good match. However, this benefit is greatest when the two children have a slightly different genetic makeup. This means that if your twins are identical (monozygotic), they will make poor blood donors for one another. If your twins are fraternal (dizygotic) they have the same chance as any other sibling of making a good donor for the other twin. Regardless of whether twins are identical or fraternal, cord blood could be used to treat another ill sibling.
The amount of stem cells from a single birth is enough to treat a child or young adult. Full-grown adults typically need more stem cells than are available in cord blood, though it is possible to combine stem cells from both of your twins.
Cord Blood Banking Options
If you choose to bank your twins’ cord blood, you must use a private bank as opposed to a public bank. Public banks operate like blood banks, so any donations become part of a public reserve. A computer registry keeps track of the available cord blood and shows all available matches for a given patient.
Public banks won’t take cord blood donations from twin births because there is generally not enough blood to reach the donation threshold. Twins tend to be born smaller, so there is less blood from the umbilical cord and placentas. In addition, there is the possibility that the hospital will mix up the blood samples after twin births.
However, a study done by Cryo-Cell, a private cord blood bank in Florida, found there are enough cells from the cords and placentas of twin births to use for stem cell therapy, should it be necessary.
Private, or family banks will take cord blood donations from twin births.They keep cord blood cells in reserve in case your twins or other family member needs it. Private banks generally charge $1,300-plus to collect cord blood at the time of delivery, and then charge a yearly storage fee of $150-plus.
Choosing a Cord Blood Bank
If you decide to donate cord blood, ask the hospital or birthing center if it works with a cord blood bank that accepts twins’ cord blood. You can go to parentsguidecordblood.org for a list of private blood banks. Your doctor also may have information about private cord blood banks in your area.
It’s important to ask a few questions before making a choice of blood bank:
- Financial stability – Is the facility likely to stay in business?
- Policies – What will happen to your cord blood if the facility goes out of business?
- Practices – Does the facility process a large number of cord blood samples? Large banks are more likely to have good quality control.
- Options – What will happen if you choose to change facilities or if you move?
- Cost – Can you afford the fees for up-front collection and yearly storage? Will the storage fees increase over time?