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    Some parents know their babies will be born premature. Others are surprised when they go into labor early.

    Whether or not you learned ahead of time about the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) -- where preemies go for treatment after they're born -- you'll learn quickly as your baby receives care there.

    He'll be in good hands as he's treated by doctors, nurses -- and at most hospitals today, you.

    Baby Doctors

    You may not have heard of neonatologists before. They're pediatricians who specialize in treating newborns and preemies in the NICU.

    Not every NICU baby sees a neonatologist. Some smaller hospitals only have pediatricians. Others may have both -- older preemies see pediatricians, while younger ones see neonatologists. Both types of doctors have years of experience with on-time and early births.

    Nurses and More

    Many health care workers treat NICU babies:

    • Nurses and nurse practitioners spend the most time caring for preemies.
    • If your newborn needs medicine, he'll get it from a pharmacist.
    • If he has trouble breathing, he'll see a respiratory therapist.
    • Speech-language therapists help preemies with feeding problems. They're experts on mouths and swallowing.
    • Pediatric hospitalists are doctors who work solely in hospitals.
    • At teaching hospitals, you may meet fellows, residents, and medical students who are getting neonatology training at different stages of their careers.

    Parents Play a Role

    Most hospitals let you care for your preemie in the NICU as much as you're able to, at any hour that's good for you. Doctors and nurses will answer questions and may let you be there when your little one is treated.

    Nurses will teach you how to feed your baby, change diapers, keep him warm, and do other tasks to help him grow stronger.

    Many NICUs have moms and dads give skin-to-skin care for preemies. You may hear them call it kangaroo care. You place your infant against your bare chest, which helps him stay warm, breathe easier, and sleep more deeply. Some babies nap on their parents' skin. Others simply enjoy the close contact.

    Common Problems

    You’ll see many machines and monitors in the NICU. Doctors and nurses use them to watch your baby and help him get stronger. He may need help with:

    • Body temperature: Some infants are too young to stay warm on their own. They're put into cozy incubators to ensure that their temps stay up, which helps them grow faster.
    • Breathing: Your baby may need a breathing machine (ventilator) or oxygen.
    • Feeding: Breast milk helps preemies grow and fight infections. NICU nurses will show you how to use a pump. If you can't, your baby may receive donor breast milk.
    • Jaundice: Some newborns turn yellow because their livers can't remove a compound called bilirubin from their blood. Being exposed to bright light (photo therapy) can cure this problem.