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What are the effects of cigarette smoking during pregnancy?

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Cigarette smoking causes serious illness and premature death in the general population, but pregnant women who smoke pass the nicotine and other carcinogenic chemicals to the growing fetus. According to the Centers for Disease Control, mothers who smoke early in their pregnancies are more likely to deliver babies that have several different heart defects, including septal defects - essentially a hole in the wall between the heart’s left and right chambers. Sadly, most infants with congenital heart defects die in the first year of life. Those infants who survive often face lengthy hospital stays and numerous surgeries along with a lifetime of disabilities.

Women who smoke are also more likely to have placenta problems. This is a serious concern because the placenta provides nourishment to the baby in the womb. Smokers also have low-birth-weight babies, premature deliveries, and babies with cleft palate. In addition, smoking during pregnancy and after delivery is one of the causes associated with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

From: Drug Use and Pregnancy WebMD Medical Reference

SOURCES:

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration - National Survey on Drug Use and Health, September 2014.

National Toxicology Program: "Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR)."

March of Dimes: "Illicit Drug Use During Pregnancy."

Medline Plus: "Pregnancy and Substance Abuse."

CDC: "Smoking Early In Pregnancy Raises Risks Of Heart Defects In Newborns."

FDA: "Pregnancy and the Drug Dilemma."

National Toxicology Program: "Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR)."

Bruce, D, PhD. Ballantine Books, 2000. Making a Baby: Everything You Need to Know to Get Pregnant,

Reviewed by Traci C. Johnson on February 06, 2019

SOURCES:

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration - National Survey on Drug Use and Health, September 2014.

National Toxicology Program: "Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR)."

March of Dimes: "Illicit Drug Use During Pregnancy."

Medline Plus: "Pregnancy and Substance Abuse."

CDC: "Smoking Early In Pregnancy Raises Risks Of Heart Defects In Newborns."

FDA: "Pregnancy and the Drug Dilemma."

National Toxicology Program: "Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR)."

Bruce, D, PhD. Ballantine Books, 2000. Making a Baby: Everything You Need to Know to Get Pregnant,

Reviewed by Traci C. Johnson on February 06, 2019

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What are the effects of drinking during pregnancy?

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