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What are the effects of drinking during pregnancy?

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Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) refer to a range of disorders caused by drinking alcohol during pregnancy. Fetal alcohol syndrome can cause abnormal facial features, growth deficiency, and problems with the central nervous system. Children with fetal alcohol syndrome may also have learning disabilities, attention span disorders, and other physical disabilities, including vision and hearing problems.

There is no "safe" limit of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Some studies have found that small amounts of alcohol consumption can have the same adverse effects on the fetus as binge drinking.

From: Drug Use and Pregnancy WebMD Medical Reference

SOURCES:

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration - National Survey on Drug Use and Health, September 2014.

National Toxicology Program: "Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR)."

March of Dimes: "Illicit Drug Use During Pregnancy."

Medline Plus: "Pregnancy and Substance Abuse."

CDC: "Smoking Early In Pregnancy Raises Risks Of Heart Defects In Newborns."

FDA: "Pregnancy and the Drug Dilemma."

National Toxicology Program: "Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR)."

Bruce, D, PhD. Ballantine Books, 2000. Making a Baby: Everything You Need to Know to Get Pregnant,

Reviewed by Traci C. Johnson on February 06, 2019

SOURCES:

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration - National Survey on Drug Use and Health, September 2014.

National Toxicology Program: "Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR)."

March of Dimes: "Illicit Drug Use During Pregnancy."

Medline Plus: "Pregnancy and Substance Abuse."

CDC: "Smoking Early In Pregnancy Raises Risks Of Heart Defects In Newborns."

FDA: "Pregnancy and the Drug Dilemma."

National Toxicology Program: "Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR)."

Bruce, D, PhD. Ballantine Books, 2000. Making a Baby: Everything You Need to Know to Get Pregnant,

Reviewed by Traci C. Johnson on February 06, 2019

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Why is caffeine considered a "drug" during pregnancy?

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