American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons: “Smoking Threatens Orthopaedic Outcomes," "Preparing for Low Back Surgery," Scoliosis Surgery: Things to Consider."
American Massage Therapy Association: "Massage Can Aid in Pain Relief."
American Psychological Association: "Stress Effects on the Body."
Cleveland Clinic: "Laminectomy: Surgery for Back Pain."
Emory Healthcare: "Before Surgery: Preparing Your Home."
Federico Girardi, MD, orthopedic spine surgeon, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York.
Holy Cross Health: "Anesthesia: preoperative Information for Patients," "Spine Surgery."
Hospital for Special Surgery: "Understanding Hospital Charges."
Ronald A. Lehman Jr., MD, professor of orthopedic surgery, Columbia University Medical Center; director of degenerative and minimally invasive spine surgery, Columbia Orthopedics, New York.
Jane W. McCabe, California-based occupational therapist and certified aging-in-place specialist.
National Institute on Drug Abuse: "What Are Opioids?"
Stefan Prada, MD, orthopedic surgeon, Laser Spine Institute, Tampa, FL.
Saskatchewan Spine Pathway Working Group of the Saskatchewan Ministry of Health (Canada): “Back Surgery: A Guide for Patients and Their Coaches.”
U.S. Department of Labor: "The Family and Medical Leave Act."
Wake Forest Medical Center: "Preparing For Spinal Surgery: A Guide for Patients and Families."
Eliasen, M. Annals of Surgery, December 2013.
Johns Hopkins Medicine: “Cervical Disk Replacement,” “Lumbar Disk Replacement.”
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism: "Using Alcohol to Relieve Your Pain: What Are the Risks?"
North American Spine Society: "Spinal Fusion."
University of Michigan: "How to Care for Yourself After Lumbar Spinal Fusion."