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How are electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) used for mixed features of bipolar episode?

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Despite its reputation, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for any phase of bipolar disorder, including manic episodes with mixed features. ECT can be helpful if medication fails or can't be used.

SOURCES: National Institute of Mental Health web site, "Bipolar Disorder." Benazzi, F. March 17, 2007. Mick, E. 2003. McElroy, S. January 1997. McElroy, S. December 1992. Medical News Today: "Study Identifies Predictors of Bipolar Disorder Risk." WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise: "Bipolar Disorder: What Increases Your Risk." Moore, D. and Jefferson, J. , Mosby, 2004. Goodwin, F. Sept. 17, 2003. Conway, K. February 2006. Medscape Psychiatry & Mental Health: "Substance Abuse and Bipolar Disorder."










Lancet,Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology,American Journal of Psychiatry,American Journal of Psychiatry,Handbook of Medical PsychiatryThe Journal of the American Medical Association,Journal of Clinical Psychiatry,

Reviewed by Smitha Bhandari on June 11, 2017

SOURCES: National Institute of Mental Health web site, "Bipolar Disorder." Benazzi, F. March 17, 2007. Mick, E. 2003. McElroy, S. January 1997. McElroy, S. December 1992. Medical News Today: "Study Identifies Predictors of Bipolar Disorder Risk." WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise: "Bipolar Disorder: What Increases Your Risk." Moore, D. and Jefferson, J. , Mosby, 2004. Goodwin, F. Sept. 17, 2003. Conway, K. February 2006. Medscape Psychiatry & Mental Health: "Substance Abuse and Bipolar Disorder."










Lancet,Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology,American Journal of Psychiatry,American Journal of Psychiatry,Handbook of Medical PsychiatryThe Journal of the American Medical Association,Journal of Clinical Psychiatry,

Reviewed by Smitha Bhandari on June 11, 2017

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What is the treatment for depression in mixed bipolar disorder?

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