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What is the meaning of M, m, D, d for bipolar spectrum disorders?

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  • Upper-case "M": Episodes of full-blown mania
  • Lower-case "m": Episodes of mild mania (hypomania)
  • Upper-case "D": Major depressive episodes
  • Lower-case "d": Less-severe symptoms of depression

From: What Is the Bipolar Spectrum? WebMD Medical Reference

SOURCES: Patten, S. November2008. Paris, J. , June 2009. Angst, J. March2007.


Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, Harvard Review of PsychiatryBritish Journal of Psychiatry,

Reviewed by Smitha Bhandari on June 11, 2019

SOURCES: Patten, S. November2008. Paris, J. , June 2009. Angst, J. March2007.


Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, Harvard Review of PsychiatryBritish Journal of Psychiatry,

Reviewed by Smitha Bhandari on June 11, 2019

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