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American Cancer Society: "Bladder Cancer," "Hairdressers and Barbers May Be at Increased Cancer Risk," "Vitamin E," "What's New in Bladder Cancer Research?" "Immunotherapy for Bladder Cancer."
American Urological Association: "Bladder Cancer."
American Urological Association Foundation: "Hematuria."
Freedman, N. Journal of the American Medical Association, August 2011.
Harling, M. Occupational & Environmental Medicine, 2010.
Ji, J. British Journal of Cancer, January 2005.
National Cancer Institute: "Staging," "Bladder Cancer Treatment," "Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer," "SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Bladder."
NIH Research Matters: "Smoking and Bladder Cancer."
ScienceDaily: "Cigarette Smoking Implicated in Half of Bladder Cancers in Women; Bladder Cancer Risk from Smoking Is Higher Than Previously Estimated, Study Confirms."
Stanford Cancer Institute: "Information About Bladder Cancer."
World Health Organization: "Tobacco Free Initiative -- Cancer."
Reviewed by Laura J. Martin, MD on May 30, 2018
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