Diagnosis and Treatment of Meningitis

To find out if your teenager has meningitis, his doctor may ask him to get a procedure called a lumbar puncture, or spinal tap. It's a key way to get a diagnosis.

The doctor injects an area of your teen's lower back with an anesthetic, a drug that keeps him from feeling anything while the procedure is going on. The doctor then slips a needle between two bones in the spine to get a small sample of spinal fluid. The fluid is normally clear, so if it appears cloudy and has white blood cells in it, your teen may have meningitis.

Lab tests will help figure out which type of meningitis your teen has -- bacterial, viral, or fungal. Your teen's doctor may also need to get samples of his blood or urine. Because the disease can move quickly, treatment sometimes starts right away, even before the test results come back.

Bacterial Meningitis

The bacterial form of meningitis can be life-threatening and needs to be treated quickly. Your teen will likely stay in a hospital to get antibiotics put into his veins through an IV until the doctor gets the results of a spinal tap.

If the spinal fluid tests show your teen has bacterial meningitis, he'll need to keep up with the antibiotics until the infection goes away, possibly for as long as 2 weeks. Because bacterial meningitis can spread easily to others, he'll probably stay in an isolated room for at least 48 hours.

Meningitis can make the eyes sensitive to light, so your teen may prefer a darkened room. He'll get plenty of liquids and drugs to relieve headache and fever. To keep him from getting reinfected, doctors will look for a source of the infection, such as an infected sinus.

If your teen has a type of bacterial meningitis called meningococcal meningitis, there's a risk that people close to him can get infected. The doctor may suggest they take an antibiotic to prevent them from getting the disease.

Viral Meningitis

Antibiotics can't treat viral meningitis and, in most cases, the infection goes away on its own with time.

Viral meningitis is usually much less severe than other types. Your teen may need only a few days in the hospital. When he's there, he'll get fluids through an IV to prevent dehydration, as well as painkillers.

Fungal Meningitis

Though very rare, fungal meningitis usually affects people with other underlying medical conditions.If your teen has fungal meningitis, he'll get antifungal medications in the hospital that can fight this rare type of infection. He'll also need to get liquids to prevent dehydration and drugs to control pain and fever.

WebMD Medical Reference Reviewed by Dan Brennan, MD on February 02, 2019

Sources

SOURCES:

Shmaefsky, B. Meningitis (Deadly Diseases and Epidemics), Chelsea House Publications, 2004.

Journal of Emergency Medicine: “Marked elevation of cerebrospinal fluid white blood cell count: An unusual case of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis, differential diagnosis, and a brief review of current epidemiology and treatment recommendations.”

Drugs: “Bacterial meningitis in children: Critical review of current concepts.”

Southern Medical Journal: “Clinical Description and Follow-up Investigation of Human West Nile Virus Cases.”

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