They've got some things in common, but there are ways to tell them apart. The right diagnosis lets your doctor get you the best treatment.
What Is a Common Cold?
It's an illness caused by many different kinds of viruses, which are tiny infectious particles.
You can't miss the symptoms:
- Nasal congestion
- Runny nose
- Post-nasal drip (drop-by-drop release of fluid from your nose into the back of the throat)
You may also get a cough and a mild fever. The symptoms usually build, peak, and slowly disappear. Some medications can ease symptoms. For example, decongestants may decrease drainage and open the nasal passages. Pain relievers may help with fever and headache. Cough medicine may help, as well.
Colds typically last from a few days to about a week or longer.
Sometimes, a cold may cause swelling in the sinuses, hollow spaces in your skull that are connected to each other. The swelling can prevent the flow of mucus.
What Is a Sinus Infection?
It's inflammation or swelling of your sinuses. Normally they're filled with air. When they become blocked and filled with fluid, bacteria can grow there and cause infection. The result: a sinus infection. You may hear your doctor refer to it as sinusitis.
What Are the Symptoms of a Sinus Infection?
They may include things like:
- Thick, yellow, foul-smelling discharge from your nose
- Pressure or pain around your face and eyes
- Headache (generally in the forehead area)
- Blockage in your nose
- Post-nasal drip
- A cold that won't go away or gets worse
- Fever or cough
These symptoms can also happen with a cold. But if they continue for more than 10 days, you may have a sinus infection.
What Causes It?
Any condition that blocks off the drainage channels of your sinuses can cause a sinus infection, such as:
- Allergies such as hay fever
- Non-allergic rhinitis (symptoms that are like an allergy but don't have a known cause)
- Nasal polyps (small growths in the lining of your nose)
A sinus infection may start after a cold. It can also happen because of something called a deviated septum, which refers to a shift in your nasal cavity.
How Is a Sinus Infection Diagnosed and Treated?
Your doctor may prescribe medication. They may recommend antibiotics if your symptoms go on for more than 10 days. Decongestants, antihistamines, and other drugs help lessen the swelling in your sinuses and nasal passages.
Steam and hot showers can help you loosen mucus. Your doctor may also suggest nasal saline to wash mucus from your nose.
In rare cases, when a sinus infection doesn't go away, long-term antibiotics or surgery may be needed.
When Should I Call the Doctor About a Cold or Sinus Infection?
Most colds go away without medical treatment. If you have pain around your face or eyes, along with thick yellow or green nasal discharge for more than a week, check with your doctor. Also call them if you have fever or symptoms that are severe or don't get better with over-the-counter treatments.