Controlling your diabetes is a daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly challenge, but the effort is worth it. Right away you'll feel better and have more energy.The payoff? You'll live better longer with less risk of problems from diabetes like heart attacks, strokes, kidney failure, even blindness.
The key to managing your diabetes is to keep your blood sugar levels as close to normal as possible. It sounds tough, but there are simple steps you can follow.
Spot Check Your Sugar
You and your doctor will have set a schedule to test your blood sugar. Add an extra check on top. Maybe at breakfast one day, lunch the next, and so on. It's like popping in unannounced.
"If you're a supervisor and your workers know that you're only going to come once a day to check on them, chances are they're going to be well-behaved during that particular time and the rest of the day you're going to be doing other things," says Sethu Reddy, MD, chief of the adult diabetes section at the Joslin Diabetes Center in Boston. "If you spot check, you have a much better sense of how things are going."
Use that information to adjust your eating and exercise to gain even better control if you need to.
They can quickly send your blood sugar on a roller-coaster ride. That's why it's so important to keep track.
Most women need 35-45 grams of carbs per meal while guys need 45-60 grams, says Jessica Crandall, a dietitian and spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. A cup of rice or pasta is about 45 grams.
To make the most of them, pair your carbs with a protein, like nuts. Opt for high-fiber carbs. Both will slow digestion so you feel full without raising blood sugar.
Good sources of fiber and carbs include whole wheat bread, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and dried beans.
Be wary of "no-sugar" products. That doesn't always mean no carbs. Foods that have "sugar alcohols" -- things that usually end in "ol" like xylitol and mannitol -- do contain carbs.
"I typically count them as half the carb," Crandall says. "They may not spike your blood sugar as quickly but they will cause a rise."
Think of Exercise as Medicine
It’s a great way to lower blood sugar, Reddy says, but the effects wear off within a week after you stop.
You need to do it regularly. Try to get 150 minutes a week. You can break that up into smaller chunks, like half an hour a day, 5 days a week. You don’t have to become a gym rat, either. It’s OK to walk, run, or bike. Talk to your doctor about an exercise plan before you start.
Physical activity also releases compounds your body makes called endorphins, which boost your mood.
Know Your Numbers
These numbers will tell you if your health is on track:
- A1c, which measures blood sugar levels over time. This should be tested at least twice a year.
- Cholesterol levels, which should be tested at least every 5 years and more often if you have trouble with it.
- Blood pressure and weight, which will get checked every time you visit the doctor.
Build a Dream Team
Diabetes is a whole-body, whole-person disease and is best treated by a team of experts, headed by you, of course. This can include your doctor along with a nutritionist, dentist, pharmacist, nurse, and others.
"Diabetes is a complex disease. Your doctor can't do it alone," says Olveen Carrasquillo, MD, chief of the division of general internal medicine at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine.
And don't forget your friends and family. People with social and family support are more likely to stick to their plans.
"There are two parts. There's a health care team but also a home team," Carrasquillo says.