It's the stuff of horror movies -- blood-sucking leeches, flesh-eating maggots, and venomous lizards. It may sound like voodoo medicine, but these "new" treatments have some amazing healing powers.
Leeches: a Good Thing
Leeches have been granted new-found respect. Medicinal leeches (Hirudo medicinalis) are blood-sucking animals that live in fresh water.
For thousands of years, people used these small, slimy creatures to suck blood with the hopes of curing numerous ailments. It was considered an alternative to bloodletting (draining blood) and amputation.
Today, leeches continue to be used worldwide to help heal wounds and restore circulation in blocked blood vessels.
In 2004, the FDA gave clearance to a French company for commercial marketing of these leeches as a medical device in the U.S. The company has bred leeches for 150 years in a certified facility and tracks each lot of leeches it produces.
Before antibiotics were developed, bloodletting -- draining blood from the body -- was the prescription for scores of serious illnesses. George Washington is said to have had 80 ounces of his blood drained in a last-ditch effort to save his life; it didn't work. As recently as 1942, medical textbooks advocated bloodletting as a treatment for acute pneumonia.
But why did bloodletting work sometimes, not others? Just this year, a Chicago scientist discovered the reason.
Staph infections -- caused by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus -- can cause serious infections of the blood, bones, and lungs (pneumonia). Antibiotics have helped control these infections, but in recent years staph bacteria have become more resistant to antibiotics.
Staph thrives on iron compounds, scavenging it from the animals it infects. It obtains most of the iron it needs to grow during infection. Specifically, it prefers the kind of iron found in heme, the molecule in red blood cells that helps carry oxygen.
Bloodletting seems to starve staph and slow its growth. The less blood that's available, the harder it is for staph to scrounge up enough heme to thrive.
Researchers say bloodletting is out of vogue but the theory may have uses in modern-day medicine. Targeting staph's ability to obtain iron is a promising area of research that may create new options for therapy against infection.
Maggots Heal Deep Wounds
You've gotta love 'em. Maggots have a big job, and they're good at it -- eating dead skin and tissue, whether it's on roadkilled animals or a living human being. In the early 20th century, maggots were used to treat human bone and tissue infections.
It's called maggot therapy, and it involves larvae called Phaenica sericata. The larvae are disinfected before they're used, so they won't make an infection worse. Twice a week, the larvae are placed on a wound and left there for 48 to 72 hours. The maggots only eat the dead tissue, leaving healthy tissue intact, a process called debridement.
The maggot larvae are thought to secrete substances that fight infection.
New research has revived maggot therapy. In a recent study, wounds that got presurgical maggot therapy developed no infections after surgery, according to the report in the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases.
When wounds didn't get maggot therapy, about one-third developed an infection. Also, surgical closure of those wounds fell apart.
Gila Monster Spit Helps Diabetes
It's true, spit from the Gila monster -- a less-than-friendly lizard -- has medical use.
Worm Eggs Ease Stomach Problems
Swallowing live worm eggs? The thought may turn your stomach. But the eggs may safely relieve the abdominal distress caused by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are two major components of IBD that cause inflammation and ulcers in the lining of the digestive tract.
In underdeveloped countries with poor sanitary conditions, IBD is practically nonexistent. Researchers have speculated that it's because parasitic worms are abundant, living in the intestines of humans and animals. Even in the U.S., before plumbing and sanitation improved, there was little IBD.
In one recent study, seven people with IBD swallowed a solution containing thousands of eggs of Trichuris suis, which is known as a "whipworm." Every two weeks, they got doses of the solution -- with great results, reports lead researcher Robert W. Summers, MD, a gastroenterologist with the University of Iowa College of Medicine.
Some of the patients have been taking the worm egg solution "for years now and are doing well," Summers says.
He says he believes the worm eggs secrete a substance that calms the overactive immune system response that causes IBD and other autoimmune disorders like lupus, multiple sclerosis, and psoriasis.
If it makes you queasy, try to get past it. "These worms have been around for 3 million years," says Summers. "And one-third of the world's population is walking around with them in their digestive tracts today and apparently having no problems."