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South Dakota Department of Health, Diabetes Prevention and Control Program: "Diabetes and Your Mouth."
American Diabetes Association: "Warning Signs," "Diabetes and Oral Health Problems," "Frequently Asked Questions," "More on the Mouth, "Brush and Floss,” “Gum Disease and Plaque,” “Learn More About Mouthrinses.””Diabetes.”
National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: "Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your teeth and gums healthy."
Ohio State University Medical Center: "Diabetes and Periodontal (Gum) Disease."
Cleveland Clinic: "Your Guide to Managing Diabetes."
American Dental Association: "Diabetes," "Cleaning Your Teeth and Gums." "Consumer Resources," "Diabetes tips for good oral health," "Smoking and Tobacco Cessation," "Cancer, Oral."
Greater St. Louis Dental Hygienists' Association: "What is Plaque and Tartar?"
National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research: "Periodontal (Gum) Disease: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments"
National Caregivers Library: "Mouth Care and Diabetes."
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics: "Thrush."
Metzer, B. American Medical Association Guide to Living With Diabetes, John Wiley and Sons, 2006.
National Institutes of Health: "Smoking - tips on how to quit."
Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene: "Diabetes and Your Oral Health."
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse (NDIC): "What I need to know about Physical Activity and Diabetes."
International Diabetes Federation: "Diabetes and Oral Health - Information for the Public."
Reviewed by Michael Dansinger, MD on March 13, 2019
This tool does not provide medical advice. See additional information.
THIS TOOL DOES NOT PROVIDE MEDICAL ADVICE. It is intended for general informational purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the WebMD Site. If you think you may have a medical emergency, immediately call your doctor or dial 911.
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