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Vegan 101

So you want to go vegan? Join the crowd. More than 6.5 million Americans claim to be vegan. That means they don't eat any type of animal-based food, including dairy and eggs. That's different than vegetarians, who may eat dairy and eggs. Why do people make the choice, and how does a vegan lifestyle work?

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The Moral Side of Veganism

Many who choose a vegan diet do so for moral reasons. They're worried about pain and suffering inflicted on animals that we eat. Vegans also are concerned about our environment. They point to the fact that the livestock industry uses 30 % of Earth's land. That leads to water pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. It also leaves less room for other animals to live.

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The Healthy Side of Veganism

Studies show that a plant-based diet protects against 15 leading causes of death in the world, including many cancers (breast, prostate, and colon among them). Some say that eating more plants helps prevent chronic diseases like high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, and heart disease.

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What You're Giving Up

Being a vegan means adopting a plant-based diet and avoiding all foods that come from animals. That means no steak, no meat burgers, no red meat, and no processed meat of any kind. It also means no chicken, bacon, turkey, or other kinds of meat or fish. Plus, no cheese, milk, or eggs.

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Going All In (or Not)

Being a strict vegan means no honey, either (it's from bees). But whether you're a vegan, a vegetarian, a pescatarian (they don't eat meat or poultry, but will eat fish), a flexitarian (they'll eat an occasional piece of meat), or something else, moving toward any plant-based diet is beneficial. Why? Only 1 in 10 Americans get the fruit and vegetables they need. Know who's big on fruits and veggies? Vegans and vegetarians.

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Replace Missing Nutrients

You'll have to get some nutrients in your old diet from other places if you go vegan. This includes calcium (that you can get from dairy), vitamins B12 (almost exclusively from animals) and D, and omega-3 fatty acids (from cold-water fish like salmon). You can replace some nutrients with plant-based foods. Otherwise, think about nutrient-fortified foods or supplements. You may need help getting enough iron and zinc, too. A dietitian can help.

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Putting on the Protein

Animal products, including eggs and dairy, are rich in protein, which helps build healthy bones, skin, muscles, and organs. But no scientific evidence shows that vegans with a well-rounded plant diet don't get enough protein. Plants high in proteins include soy, whole grains, legumes (peas and beans), nuts, and seeds.

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About Those Carbs

Fruits, vegetables, and grains -- all major parts of a good vegan diet -- are good sources of carbohydrates and should make up about 45%-65% of your total calories each day. But carbs from processed grains (white rice, white flour), or from added sugars (candy, drinks) can be vegan, and they're largely stripped of nutrients. These high-calorie carbs can lead to weight gain and all sorts of other problems.

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Balancing Your Vegan Diet

A typical vegan diet replaces meat, poultry, and seafood products with soy (like tofu), legumes, whole grains, and nuts and seeds. But in what proportions?  Consider four roughly equal portions on your vegan plate: Fruits, vegetables, grains (preferably whole), and proteins (beans, peas, nuts, soy). Mix it up. And don't forget the leafy greens and soy milk for your calcium needs. Confused? A dietitian can help you come up with a plan.

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How Vegans Read Food Labels

Shopping outside of the produce aisle can be tricky for a new vegan. Lots of innocent-looking canned and packaged foods contain animal-based products. Study food labels and watch for things like gelatin (made from cows and pigs and used in things like candies, puddings, and marshmallows), bone char (used in some sugars), and lard (in things like french fries and refried beans).

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Now We're Cookin'

The internet is filled with good, tasty vegan recipes, many designed to mimic (or even improve upon) the flavor of non-vegan foods. You can get plant-based "meats" that taste surprisingly like burgers. Ice cream, milk, and cheese made from plants also exist. You can make "sushi" burgers, and guacamole onion rings, too.

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How to Order Out

You can get a good vegan meal in a restaurant. Pizza? Hold the cheese, and go nuts on the veggies as toppings. Salads are a good option. Italian food can be delicious with a meat-free sauce. Mediterranean diets feature hummus, tabbouleh, falafel, and a range of vegan choices. If you worry about eating out, look at the menu ahead of time, or ask the waiter if the kitchen can do something meatless.

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A Final Word on Soy

Soy is a staple of vegan diets and a protein-rich ingredient in vegan burgers and cheeses. Soy milk, too, is a great source of iron and calcium. Some worry about soy's connection to a higher chance of breast cancer. Others with hypothyroid have concerns that soy can interfere with their medication. Research suggests that soy is a safe choice. But it's never the only choice. Plenty of plants offer similar nutrients. Talk with your doctor.

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Sources | Medically Reviewed on 07/22/2020 Reviewed by Christine Mikstas, RD, LD on July 22, 2020

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Nutrients: "Beyond Meatless, the Health Effects of Vegan Diets: Findings from the Adventist Cohorts."
United States Census Bureau: "U.S. and World Population Clock."
Deckers, J. Animal (De)liberation: Should the Consumption of Animal Products Be Banned?, "The Ethics of Qualified Moral Veganism," Ubiquity Press, 2016.
Journal of Environmental and Public Health: "Reducing the Environmental Impact of Dietary Choice: Perspectives from a Behavioural and Social Change Approach."
The Journal of Unexplored Medical Data: "The role of plant-based nutrition in cancer prevention."
National Institutes of Health: "Digging a Vegetarian Diet."
CDC: "Only 1 in 10 Adults Get Enough Fruits or Vegetables."
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition: "Health Effects of Vegan Diets."
Mayo Clinic: "Vegetarian diet: How to get the best nutrition," "Carbohydrates: How carbs fit into a healthy diet."
A Healthier Michigan: "Top 10 Reasons to Consult with a Registered Dietitian."
Deckers, J. Animal (De)liberation: Should the Consumption of Animal Products Be Banned?, "Might a Vegan Diet Be Healthy, or Even Healthier?" Ubiquity Press, 2016.
Advances in Nutrition: "Carbohydrates."
American Heart Association: "Carbohydrates." 
The BMJ: "Dietary carbohydrates: role of quality and quantity in chronic disease."
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture: "2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. 8th Edition."
The Vegetarian Resource Group: "My Vegan Plate," "Veganism in a Nutshell."
U.S. Department of Agriculture ChooseMyPlate: "10 Tips: Healthy Eating for Vegetarians."
People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals: "Animal-Derived Ingredients List,"  "How to Go Vegan."
Nutrients: "Soy, Soy Foods and Their Roles in Vegetarian Diets."
American Cancer Society: "Soy and Cancer Risk: Our Expert’s Advice."

Reviewed by Christine Mikstas, RD, LD on July 22, 2020

This tool does not provide medical advice. See additional information.

THIS TOOL DOES NOT PROVIDE MEDICAL ADVICE. It is intended for general informational purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the WebMD Site. If you think you may have a medical emergency, immediately call your doctor or dial 911.