What Are the Treatments for Heat-Related Illness?
Heat cramps can usually be alleviated by escaping the heat: resting; drinking water, clear juice, or a sports beverage; and eating moderately salty foods. Gentle massage or firm pressure applied to cramping muscles may help alleviate spasms. In severe cases, the victim may need intravenous fluids that contain salts. If heat cramps do not go away within the hour, or if you have heart disease or are on a salt-restricted diet, seek medical help.
For Heat Exhaustion and Heat Stroke
First, GET HELP. It is critical that emergency medical assistance be called as soon as possible. Then, if possible, get the victim to drink, but don't force fluids if the person is confused or has passed out. Avoid alcohol or caffeine.
The primary treatment for heat exhaustion is replacement of lost fluids and salt. Victims should be moved to a cool environment, lie flat or with their feet raised slightly above head level, and sip a cool, slightly salty beverage -- such as a sports drink, tomato juice, cool bouillon, or other vegetable or fruit juices.
- While help is on the way, move the victim into the shade and wrap him in cool, wet bedding or clothing. Or, remove the victim's clothes and sponge his body with cool water until help arrives.
- Ice packs can be placed on the groin, neck, or underarms, or the victim can be fanned by hand or with an electric fan or a blow-dryer set on cold (do not use a blow-dryer that blows only hot air).
- If possible, use a thermometer to monitor the person's temperature and stop cooling treatments if his temperature normalizes.
- Once at the hospital, a person who has suffered heat stroke will be given intravenous fluids to correct dehydration and replete sodium and potassium. The person also may be given intravenous drugs to control seizures or other complications and will likely be confined to bed rest and monitored for 24 hours to several days.