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What are synthetic oxygen carriers in blood doping?

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Synthetic oxygen carriers are, just as the name implies, chemicals that have the ability to carry oxygen within the body. Two examples are:

Athletes use synthetic oxygen carriers for the same performance-enhancing effects of other types of blood doping -- increased oxygen in the blood that helps fuel muscles.

  • HBOCs (hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers)
  • PFCs (perfluorocarbons)

From: Blood Doping WebMD Medical Reference

SOURCES:

World Anti-Doping Agency: "Questions & Answers on Blood Doping."

United States Anti-Doping Agency: "Effects of Steroids, Doping and Performance-Enhancing Drugs."

Cleveland Clinic: "Erythropoietin Stimulating Agents."

Jelkmann, W. June 2011. Blood,

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute: "What Is a Transfusion?"

American College of Sports Medicine: "ACSM Position Stand: The Use of Blood Doping as an Ergogenic Aid."

World Anti-Doping Agency: "Questions & Answers on EPO," "A Brief History of Anti-Doping."

Anplastic Anemia and MDS International Foundation: "Side effects of red blood cell transfusion."

Baron, D. June 2007. World Psychiatry,

Reviewed by Jennifer Robinson on January 19, 2017

SOURCES:

World Anti-Doping Agency: "Questions & Answers on Blood Doping."

United States Anti-Doping Agency: "Effects of Steroids, Doping and Performance-Enhancing Drugs."

Cleveland Clinic: "Erythropoietin Stimulating Agents."

Jelkmann, W. June 2011. Blood,

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute: "What Is a Transfusion?"

American College of Sports Medicine: "ACSM Position Stand: The Use of Blood Doping as an Ergogenic Aid."

World Anti-Doping Agency: "Questions & Answers on EPO," "A Brief History of Anti-Doping."

Anplastic Anemia and MDS International Foundation: "Side effects of red blood cell transfusion."

Baron, D. June 2007. World Psychiatry,

Reviewed by Jennifer Robinson on January 19, 2017

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