Ajagandha, Amangura, Amukkirag, Asan, Asana, Asgand, Asgandh, Asgandha, Ashagandha, Ashvagandha, Ashwaganda, Ashwanga, Asoda, Asundha, Asvagandha, Aswagandha, Avarada, Ayurvedic Ginseng, Cerise d'Hiver, Clustered Wintercherry, Ghoda Asoda, Ginseng Ayurvédique, Ginseng Indien, Hayahvaya, Indian Ginseng, Kanaje Hindi, Kuthmithi, Orovale, Peyette, Physalis somnifera, Samm Al Ferakh, Samm Al Rerakh, Sogade-Beru, Strychnos, Turangi-Ghanda, Vajigandha, Winter Cherry, Withania, Withania somnifera.<br/><br/>
Overview InformationAshwagandha is a plant. The root and berry are used to make medicine.
Ashwagandha has a lot of uses. But so far, there isn't enough information to judge whether it is effective for any of them.
Ashwagandha is used for arthritis, anxiety, bipolar disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), balance, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), trouble sleeping (insomnia), tumors, tuberculosis, asthma, a skin condition marked by white patchiness (leukoderma), bronchitis, backache, fibromyalgia, menstrual problems, hiccups, Parkinson's disease, under-active thyroid (hypothyroidism), and chronic liver disease. It is also used to reduce side effects of medications used to treat cancer and schizophrenia. Ashwagandha is used to reduce levels of fat and sugar in the blood.
Ashwagandha is also used as an "adaptogen" to help the body cope with daily stress, and as a general tonic.
Some people also use ashwagandha for improving thinking ability, decreasing pain and swelling (inflammation), and preventing the effects of aging. It is also used for fertility problems in men and women and also to increase sexual desire.
Ashwagandha is applied to the skin for treating wounds, backache, and one-sided paralysis (hemiplegia).
The name Ashwagandha is from the Sanskrit language and is a combination of the word ashva, meaning horse, and gandha, meaning smell. The root has a strong aroma that is described as "horse-like."
In Ayurvedic, Indian, and Unani medicine, ashwagandha is described as "Indian ginseng." Ashwagandha is also used in traditional African medicine for a variety of ailments.
Don't confuse ashwagandha with Physalis alkekengi. Both are known as winter cherry.
How does it work?Ashwagandha contains chemicals that might help calm the brain, reduce swelling (inflammation), lower blood pressure, and alter the immune system.
Uses & Effectiveness
Possibly Effective for
- Stress. Taking a specific ashwagandha root extract (KSM66, Ixoreal Biomed) 300 mg twice daily after food for 60 days appears to improve symptoms of stress.
Insufficient Evidence for
- Reducing side effects associated with medications called antipsychotics. Antipsychotics are used to treat schizophrenia but they can cause levels of fat and sugar in the blood to increase. Taking a specific ashwagandha extract (Cap Strelaxin, M/s Pharmanza Herbal Pvt. Ltd.) 400 mg three times daily for one month might reduce levels of fat and sugar in the blood in people using these medications.
- Anxiety. Some clinical research shows that taking ashwagandha can reduce some symptoms of anxiety or anxious mood.
- Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Some clinical research shows that a combination herbal product containing ashwagandha may improve attention and impulse control in children with ADHD. The effect of ashwagandha alone is unclear.
- Bipolar disorder. Taking a specific ashwagandha extract (Sensoril, Natreon, Inc.) for 8 weeks might improve brain function in people being treated for bipolar disorder.
- A brain condition called cerebellar ataxia. Preliminary research shows that ashwagandha in combination with an alternative form of medicine known as Ayurvedic therapy might improve balance in people with cerebellar ataxia.
- Fatigue in people treated for cancer (chemotherapy). Early research suggests taking a specific ashwagandha extract 2,000 mg (Himalaya Drug Co, New Delhi, India) during chemotherapy treatment might reduce feelings of tiredness.
- Diabetes. There is some evidence that ashwagandha might reduce blood sugar levels in people with diabetes.
- High cholesterol. There is some evidence that ashwagandha might reduce cholesterol levels in patients with high cholesterol.
- Underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism). People with underactive thyroid have high blood levels of a hormone called thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). People with underactive thyroid can also have low levels of thyroid hormone. Taking ashwagandha seems to lower TSH and increase thyroid hormone levels in people with a mild form of underactive thyroid.
- Male infertility. Some preliminary clinical evidence suggests that ashwagandha might improve sperm quality, but not sperm count, in infertile men. It is not known if taking ashwagandha can actually improve fertility.
- Osteoarthritis. Early research shows that ashwagandha taken along with a zinc complex, guggul, and turmeric might improve arthritis symptoms. The impact of ashwagandha alone is unclear.
- Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Early research shows that ashwagandha root extract might reduce symptoms of OCD when taken with prescribed medications for 6 weeks better than taking the prescribed medication alone.
- Parkinson's disease. Preliminary research suggests that a combination of herbs including ashwagandha improves Parkinson's symptoms. The effect of ashwagandha alone in Parkinson's is unknown.
- Rheumatoid arthritis. Early research shows that ashwagandha powder taken for 3 weeks followed by 4 weeks of sidh makardhwaj (a mixture of gold, mercury, and sulfur) slightly improves symptoms in some people with RA. The impact of ashwagandha alone in RA is unclear.
- Increasing interest in sex. Early research shows that taking ashwagandha extract daily for 8 weeks along with receiving counseling increases interest in sex and sexual satisfaction in adult women with sexual dysfunction better than counseling alone.
- Altering immune system function.
- Inducing vomiting.
- Liver problems.
- Preventing the signs of aging.
- Swelling (inflammation).
- Other conditions.
Side Effects & SafetyAshwagandha is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth short-term. The long-term safety of ashwagandha is not known. Large doses of ashwagandha might cause stomach upset, diarrhea, and vomiting.
It’s not known whether it’s safe to apply ashwagandha directly to the skin.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Do not use ashwagandha if you are pregnant. It is rated LIKELY UNSAFE during pregnancy. There is some evidence that ashwagandha might cause miscarriages. Not enough is known about the use of ashwagandha during breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Diabetes: Ashwagandha might lower blood sugar levels. This could interfere with medications used for diabetes and cause blood sugar levels to go to low. If you have diabetes, monitor your blood sugar closely.
High or low blood pressure: Ashwagandha might decrease blood pressure. This could cause blood pressure to go to low in people with low blood pressure; or interfere with medications used to treat high blood pressure. Ashwagandha should be used cautiously if you have low blood pressure or take medications for your blood pressure.
Stomach ulcers: Ashwagandha can irritate the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Don’t use ashwagandha if you have a stomach ulcer.
“Auto-immune diseases” such as multiple sclerosis (MS), lupus (systemic lupus erythematosus, SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), or other conditions: Ashwagandha might cause the immune system to become more active, and this could increase the symptoms of auto-immune diseases. If you have one of these conditions, it’s best to avoid using ashwagandha.
Surgery: Ashwagandha may slow down the central nervous system. Healthcare providers worry that anesthesia and other medications during and after surgery might increase this effect. Stop taking ashwagandha at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
Thyroid disorders: Ashwagandha might increase thyroid hormone levels. Ashwagandha should be used cautiously or avoided if you have a thyroid condition or take thyroid hormone medications.
Be cautious with this combination
Medications that decrease the immune system (Immunosuppressants) interacts with ASHWAGANDHA
Ashwagandha seems to increase the immune system. Taking ashwagandha along with medications that decrease the immune system might decrease the effectiveness of medications that decrease the immune system.<br/><br/> Some medications that decrease the immune system include azathioprine (Imuran), basiliximab (Simulect), cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune), daclizumab (Zenapax), muromonab-CD3 (OKT3, Orthoclone OKT3), mycophenolate (CellCept), tacrolimus (FK506, Prograf), sirolimus (Rapamune), prednisone (Deltasone, Orasone), corticosteroids (glucocorticoids), and others.
Sedative medications (Benzodiazepines) interacts with ASHWAGANDHA
Ashwagandha might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Drugs that cause sleepiness and drowsiness are called sedatives. Taking ashwagandha along with sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness.<br/><br/> Some of these sedative medications include clonazepam (Klonopin), diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan), and others.
Sedative medications (CNS depressants) interacts with ASHWAGANDHA
Ashwagandha might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Medications that cause sleepiness are called sedatives. Taking ashwagandha along with sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness.<br/><br/> Some sedative medications include clonazepam (Klonopin), lorazepam (Ativan), phenobarbital (Donnatal), zolpidem (Ambien), and others.
Be watchful with this combination
Thyroid hormone interacts with ASHWAGANDHA
The body naturally produces thyroid hormones. Ashwagandha might increase how much thyroid hormone the body produces. Taking ashwagandha with thyroid hormone pills might cause too much thyroid hormone in the body, and increase the effects and side effects of thyroid hormone.
The appropriate dose of ashwagandha depends on several factors such as the user’s age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for ashwagandha. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.
- Prieto Castro, R. M., Leva Vallejo, M. E., Regueiro Lopez, J. C., Anglada Curado, F. J., Alvarez, Kindelan J., and Requena Tapia, M. J. Combined treatment with vitamin E and colchicine in the early stages of Peyronie's disease. BJU.Int. 2003;91(6):522-524. View abstract.
- Prince, M. I., Mitchison, H. C., Ashley, D., Burke, D. A., Edwards, N., Bramble, M. G., James, O. F., and Jones, D. E. Oral antioxidant supplementation for fatigue associated with primary biliary cirrhosis: results of a multicentre, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Aliment.Pharmacol.Ther. 2003;17(1):137-143. View abstract.
- Pryor, J. P. and Farell, C. F. Controlled clinical trial of vitamin E in Peyronie's disease. Prog Reprod Biol 1983;9:41-45.
- Rahimi, R., Nikfar, S., Rezaie, A., and Abdollahi, M. A meta-analysis on the efficacy and safety of combined vitamin C and E supplementation in preeclamptic women. Hypertens.Pregnancy. 2009;28(4):417-434. View abstract.
- Rajasekhar, D., Srinivasa Rao, P. V., Latheef, S. A., Saibaba, K. S., and Subramanyam, G. Association of serum antioxidants and risk of coronary heart disease in South Indian population. Indian J.Med.Sci. 2004;58(11):465-471. View abstract.
- Ranganathan, L. N. and Ramaratnam, S. Vitamins for epilepsy. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev 2005;(2):CD004304. View abstract.
- Rapola, J. M., Virtamo, J., Haukka, J. K., Heinonen, O. P., Albanes, D., Taylor, P. R., and Huttunen, J. K. Effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of angina pectoris. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. JAMA 3-6-1996;275(9):693-698. View abstract.
- RATCLIFFE, A. H. Vitamin E in intermittent claudication. Lancet 12-17-1949;2(6590):1128-1130. View abstract.
- Read, R. W. Uveitis: advances in understanding of pathogenesis and treatment. Curr.Rheumatol.Rep. 2006;8(4):260-266. View abstract.
- Rema, M., Mohan, V., Bhaskar, A., and Shanmugasundaram, K. R. Does oxidant stress play a role in diabetic retinopathy? Indian J Ophthalmol. 1995;43(1):17-21. View abstract.
- Ricciarelli, R., Argellati, F., Pronzato, M. A., and Domenicotti, C. Vitamin E and neurodegenerative diseases. Mol.Aspects Med. 2007;28(5-6):591-606. View abstract.
- Richer, S. Multicenter ophthalmic and nutritional age-related macular degeneration study--part 2: antioxidant intervention and conclusions. J.Am.Optom.Assoc. 1996;67(1):30-49. View abstract.
- Riemersma, R. A., Oliver, M., Elton, R. A., Alfthan, G., Vartiainen, E., Salo, M., Rubba, P., Mancini, M., Georgi, H., Vuilleumier, J. P., and . Plasma antioxidants and coronary heart disease: vitamins C and E, and selenium. Eur.J Clin.Nutr 1990;44(2):143-150. View abstract.
- Riemersma, R. A., Wood, D. A., Macintyre, C. C., Elton, R. A., Gey, K. F., and Oliver, M. F. Risk of angina pectoris and plasma concentrations of vitamins A, C, and E and carotene. Lancet 1-5-1991;337(8732):1-5. View abstract.
- Rigalleau, V., Barbe, M., Garuz, F., Baillet-Blanco, L., Beauvieux, M. C., and Gin, H. Nutritional factors and diabetic foot: a role for vitamin E? Diabet.Med. 2004;21(8):951-952. View abstract.
- Rimm, E. B., Giovannucci, E. L., Willett, W. C., Colditz, G. A., Ascherio, A., Rosner, B., and Stampfer, M. J. Prospective study of alcohol consumption and risk of coronary disease in men. Lancet 8-24-1991;338(8765):464-468. View abstract.
- Rivas-Echeverria CA, Echeverria Y Molina L Novoa D. Synergic use of aspirin, fish oil and vitamins C and E for the prevention of preeclampsia. Hypertension in Pregnancy 2000;19(Suppl 1):30.
- Roberts, E. A. Steatohepatitis in children. Best.Pract.Res.Clin.Gastroenterol. 2002;16(5):749-765. View abstract.
- Roberts, J. M., Myatt, L., Spong, C. Y., Thom, E. A., Hauth, J. C., Leveno, K. J., Pearson, G. D., Wapner, R. J., Varner, M. W., Thorp, J. M., Jr., Mercer, B. M., Peaceman, A. M., Ramin, S. M., Carpenter, M. W., Samuels, P., Sciscione, A., Harper, M., Smith, W. J., Saade, G., Sorokin, Y., and Anderson, G. B. Vitamins C and E to prevent complications of pregnancy-associated hypertension. N.Engl.J Med 4-8-2010;362(14):1282-1291. View abstract.
- Robinson, I., de Serna, D. G., Gutierrez, A., and Schade, D. S. Vitamin E in humans: an explanation of clinical trial failure. Endocr.Pract. 2006;12(5):576-582. View abstract.
- Roed-Petersen, J. and Hjorth, N. Contact dermatitis from antioxidants. Br.J.Dermatol. 1976;94(3):233-241. View abstract.
- Ronco, A., De, Stefani E., Boffetta, P., Deneo-Pellegrini, H., Mendilaharsu, M., and Leborgne, F. Vegetables, fruits, and related nutrients and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay. Nutr.Cancer 1999;35(2):111-119. View abstract.
- Roncucci L, Ponz de Leon M. Antioxidant vitamins or lactulose as chemopreventive agents for colorectal cancer. Food and Cancer Prevention 1993;147-150.
- Ronnholm, K. A., Dostalova, L., and Siimes, M. A. Vitamin E supplementation in very-low-birth-weight infants: long-term follow-up at two different levels of vitamin E supplementation. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1989;49(1):121-126. View abstract.
- Rosenbaum, C. C., O'Mathuna, D. P., Chavez, M., and Shields, K. Antioxidants and antiinflammatory dietary supplements for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Altern.Ther.Health Med. 2010;16(2):32-40. View abstract.
- Rosselli, J. L., Thacker, S. M., Karpinski, J. P., and Petkewicz, K. A. Treatment of IgA nephropathy: an update. Ann.Pharmacother. 2011;45(10):1284-1296. View abstract.
- Rossi, A. C. and Mullin, P. M. Prevention of pre-eclampsia with low-dose aspirin or vitamins C and E in women at high or low risk: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Eur.J Obstet.Gynecol.Reprod.Biol. 2011;158(1):9-16. View abstract.
- Rudolph, N., Schiller, M. S., and Wong, S. L. Vitamin E and selenium in preterm infants: lack of effect on clinical patency of ductus arteriosus. Int.J.Vitam.Nutr.Res. 1989;59(2):140-146. View abstract.
- Ruiz, Rejon F., Martin, Pena G., Lopez, Manglano C., Seijas, Martinez, V, and Ruiz, Galiana J. [Plasma levels of vitamins A and E and the risk of acute myocardial infarct]. Rev.Clin.Esp. 1997;197(6):411-416. View abstract.
- Ruiz, Rejon F., Martin-Pena, G., Granado, F., Ruiz-Galiana, J., Blanco, I., and Olmedilla, B. Plasma status of retinol, alpha- and gamma-tocopherols, and main carotenoids to first myocardial infarction: case control and follow-up study. Nutrition 2002;18(1):26-31. View abstract.
- Rumbold, A. and Crowther, C. A. Vitamin E supplementation in pregnancy. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev 2005;(2):CD004069. View abstract.
- Rumbold, A. R., Crowther, C. A., Haslam, R. R., Dekker, G. A., and Robinson, J. S. Vitamins C and E and the risks of preeclampsia and perinatal complications. N.Engl.J Med 4-27-2006;354(17):1796-1806. View abstract.
- Russell, M. J., Thomas, B. S., and Bulbrook, R. D. A prospective study of the relationship between serum vitamins A and E and risk of breast cancer. Br.J.Cancer 1988;57(2):213-215. View abstract.
- Ryglewicz, D., Rodo, M., Kunicki, P. K., Bednarska-Makaruk, M., Graban, A., Lojkowska, W., and Wehr, H. Plasma antioxidant activity and vascular dementia. J.Neurol.Sci. 11-15-2002;203-204:195-197. View abstract.
- Sacco, M., Pellegrini, F., Roncaglioni, M. C., Avanzini, F., Tognoni, G., and Nicolucci, A. Primary prevention of cardiovascular events with low-dose aspirin and vitamin E in type 2 diabetic patients: results of the Primary Prevention Project (PPP) trial. Diabetes Care 2003;26(12):3264-3272. View abstract.
- Saeian, K., Bajaj, J. S., Franco, J., Knox, J. F., Daniel, J., Peine, C., McKee, D., Varma, R. R., and Ho, S. High-dose vitamin E supplementation does not diminish ribavirin-associated haemolysis in hepatitis C treatment with combination standard alpha-interferon and ribavirin. Aliment.Pharmacol.Ther 11-15-2004;20(10):1189-1193. View abstract.
- Safarinejad, M. R., Hosseini, S. Y., and Kolahi, A. A. Comparison of vitamin E and propionyl-L-carnitine, separately or in combination, in patients with early chronic Peyronie's disease: a double-blind, placebo controlled, randomized study. J Urol. 2007;178(4 Pt 1):1398-1403. View abstract.
- Saldanha, R. L., Cepeda, E. E., and Poland, R. L. The effect of vitamin E prophylaxis on the incidence and severity of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. J.Pediatr. 1982;101(1):89-93. View abstract.
- Salonen, J. T., Salonen, R., Penttila, I., Herranen, J., Jauhiainen, M., Kantola, M., Lappetelainen, R., Maenpaa, P. H., Alfthan, G., and Puska, P. Serum fatty acids, apolipoproteins, selenium and vitamin antioxidants and the risk of death from coronary artery disease. Am.J Cardiol. 8-1-1985;56(4):226-231. View abstract.
- Salonen, J. T., Salonen, R., Seppanen, K., Kantola, M., Parviainen, M., Alfthan, G., Maenpaa, P. H., Taskinen, E., and Rauramaa, R. Relationship of serum selenium and antioxidants to plasma lipoproteins, platelet aggregability and prevalent ischaemic heart disease in Eastern Finnish men. Atherosclerosis 1988;70(1-2):155-160. View abstract.
- Ahumada F, Aspee F, Wikman G, and et al. Withania somnifera extract. Its effect on arterial blood pressure in anaesthetized dogs. Phytotherapy Research 1991;5:111-114.
- Anbalagan K and Sadique J. Withania somnifera (ashwagandha), a rejuvenating herbal drug which controls alpha-2 macroglobulin synthesis during inflammation. Int.J.Crude Drug Res. 1985;23(4):177-183.
- Anbalagan, K. and Sadique, J. Influence of an Indian medicine (Ashwagandha) on acute-phase reactants in inflammation. Indian J Exp Biol. 1981;19(3):245-249. View abstract.
- Aphale, A. A., Chhibba, A. D., Kumbhakarna, N. R., Mateenuddin, M., and Dahat, S. H. Subacute toxicity study of the combination of ginseng (Panax ginseng) and ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) in rats: a safety assessment. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1998;42(2):299-302. View abstract.
- Begum, V. H. and Sadique, J. Long term effect of herbal drug Withania somnifera on adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 1988;26(11):877-882. View abstract.
- Bhat, J., Damle, A., Vaishnav, P. P., Albers, R., Joshi, M., and Banerjee, G. In vivo enhancement of natural killer cell activity through tea fortified with Ayurvedic herbs. Phytother.Res 2010;24(1):129-135. View abstract.
- Bhattacharya, S. K. and Muruganandam, A. V. Adaptogenic activity of Withania somnifera: an experimental study using a rat model of chronic stress. Pharmacol Biochem.Behav 2003;75(3):547-555. View abstract.
- Bhattacharya, S. K., Bhattacharya, A., Sairam, K., and Ghosal, S. Anxiolytic-antidepressant activity of Withania somnifera glycowithanolides: an experimental study. Phytomedicine 2000;7(6):463-469. View abstract.
- Choudhary, M. I., Nawaz, S. A., ul-Haq, Z., Lodhi, M. A., Ghayur, M. N., Jalil, S., Riaz, N., Yousuf, S., Malik, A., Gilani, A. H., and ur-Rahman, A. Withanolides, a new class of natural cholinesterase inhibitors with calcium antagonistic properties. Biochem.Biophys.Res Commun. 8-19-2005;334(1):276-287. View abstract.
- Davis, L. and Kuttan, G. Effect of Withania somnifera on DMBA induced carcinogenesis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001;75(2-3):165-168. View abstract.
- Deocaris, C. C., Widodo, N., Wadhwa, R., and Kaul, S. C. Merger of ayurveda and tissue culture-based functional genomics: inspirations from systems biology. J.Transl.Med. 2008;6:14. View abstract.
- Devi, P. U., Sharada, A. C., and Solomon, F. E. Antitumor and radiosensitizing effects of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) on a transplantable mouse tumor, Sarcoma-180. Indian J Exp Biol. 1993;31(7):607-611. View abstract.
- Devi, P. U., Sharada, A. C., and Solomon, F. E. In vivo growth inhibitory and radiosensitizing effects of withaferin A on mouse Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. Cancer Lett. 8-16-1995;95(1-2):189-193. View abstract.
- Devi, P. U., Sharada, A. C., Solomon, F. E., and Kamath, M. S. In vivo growth inhibitory effect of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) on a transplantable mouse tumor, Sarcoma 180. Indian J Exp Biol. 1992;30(3):169-172. View abstract.
- Dhuley, J. N. Effect of ashwagandha on lipid peroxidation in stress-induced animals. J Ethnopharmacol. 1998;60(2):173-178. View abstract.
- Dhuley, J. N. Therapeutic efficacy of Ashwagandha against experimental aspergillosis in mice. Immunopharmacol.Immunotoxicol. 1998;20(1):191-198. View abstract.
- Ghosal S, Lal J, Srivastava R, and et al. Immunomodulatory and CNS effects of sitoindosides 9 and 10, two new glycowithanolides from Withania somnifera. Phytotherapy Research 1989;3(5):201-206.
- Gupta, S. K., Dua, A., and Vohra, B. P. Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) attenuates antioxidant defense in aged spinal cord and inhibits copper induced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidative modifications. Drug Metabol.Drug Interact. 2003;19(3):211-222. View abstract.
- Kaur, K., Rani, G., Widodo, N., Nagpal, A., Taira, K., Kaul, S. C., and Wadhwa, R. Evaluation of the anti-proliferative and anti-oxidative activities of leaf extract from in vivo and in vitro raised Ashwagandha. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2004;42(12):2015-2020. View abstract.
- Khattak, S., Saeed, Ur Rehman, Shah, H. U., Khan, T., and Ahmad, M. In vitro enzyme inhibition activities of crude ethanolic extracts derived from medicinal plants of Pakistan. Nat.Prod.Res 2005;19(6):567-571. View abstract.
- Kulkarni, S. K. and Dhir, A. Withania somnifera: an Indian ginseng. Prog.Neuropsychopharmacol.Biol.Psychiatry 7-1-2008;32(5):1093-1105. View abstract.
- Kuppurajan K, Rajagopalan SS, Sitoraman R, and et al. Effect of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal) on the process of ageing on human volunteers. Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha 1980;1(2):247-258.
- Lu, L., Liu, Y., Zhu, W., Shi, J., Liu, Y., Ling, W., and Kosten, T. R. Traditional medicine in the treatment of drug addiction. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 2009;35(1):1-11. View abstract.
- Malhotra, C. L., Mehta, V. L., Das, P. K., and Dhalla, N. S. Studies on Withania-ashwagandha, Kaul. V. The effect of total alkaloids (ashwagandholine) on the central nervous system. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1965;9(3):127-136. View abstract.
- Malhotra, C. L., Mehta, V. L., Prasad, K., and Das, P. K. Studies on Withania ashwagandha, Kaul. IV. The effect of total alkaloids on the smooth muscles. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1965;9(1):9-15. View abstract.
- Malviya, N., Jain, S., Gupta, V. B., and Vyas, S. Recent studies on aphrodisiac herbs for the management of male sexual dysfunction--a review. Acta Pol.Pharm. 2011;68(1):3-8. View abstract.
- Mikolai, J., Erlandsen, A., Murison, A., Brown, K. A., Gregory, W. L., Raman-Caplan, P., and Zwickey, H. L. In vivo effects of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) extract on the activation of lymphocytes. J.Altern.Complement Med. 2009;15(4):423-430. View abstract.
- Praveenkumar, V., Kuttan, R., and Kuttan, G. Chemoprotective action of Rasayanas against cyclosphamide toxicity. Tumori 8-31-1994;80(4):306-308. View abstract.
- Sehgal, V. N., Verma, P., and Bhattacharya, S. N. Fixed-drug eruption caused by ashwagandha (Withania somnifera): a widely used Ayurvedic drug. Skinmed. 2012;10(1):48-49. View abstract.
- Sharada, A. C., Solomon, F. E., Devi, P. U., Udupa, N., and Srinivasan, K. K. Antitumor and radiosensitizing effects of withaferin A on mouse Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in vivo. Acta Oncol. 1996;35(1):95-100. View abstract.
- Singh, R. H., Narsimhamurthy, K., and Singh, G. Neuronutrient impact of Ayurvedic Rasayana therapy in brain aging. Biogerontology. 2008;9(6):369-374. View abstract.
- Tohda, C. [Overcoming several neurodegenerative diseases by traditional medicines: the development of therapeutic medicines and unraveling pathophysiological mechanisms]. Yakugaku Zasshi 2008;128(8):1159-1167. View abstract.
- Upadhaya L and et al. Role of an indigenous drug Geriforte on blood levels of biogenic amines and its significance in the treatment of anxiety neurosis. Acta Nerv Super 1990;32(1):1-5.
- Vaishnavi, K., Saxena, N., Shah, N., Singh, R., Manjunath, K., Uthayakumar, M., Kanaujia, S. P., Kaul, S. C., Sekar, K., and Wadhwa, R. Differential activities of the two closely related withanolides, Withaferin A and Withanone: bioinformatics and experimental evidences. PLoS.One. 2012;7(9):e44419. View abstract.
- Ven Murthy, M. R., Ranjekar, P. K., Ramassamy, C., and Deshpande, M. Scientific basis for the use of Indian ayurvedic medicinal plants in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders: ashwagandha. Cent.Nerv.Syst.Agents Med.Chem. 9-1-2010;10(3):238-246. View abstract.
- Venkataraghavan S, Seshadri C, Sundaresan TP, and et al. The comparative effect of milk fortified with Aswagandha, Aswagandha and Punarnava in children - a double-blind study. J Res Ayur Sid 1980;1:370-385.
- Agarwal R, Diwanay S, Patki P, Patwardhan B. Studies on immunomodulatory activity of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) extracts in experimental immune inflammation. J Ethnopharmacol 1999;67:27-35. View abstract.
- Agnihotri AP, Sontakke SD, Thawani VR, Saoji A, Goswami VS. Effects of Withania somnifera in patients of schizophrenia: a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled pilot trial study. Indian J Pharmacol. 2013;45(4):417-8. View abstract.
- Ahmad MK, Mahdi AA, Shukla KK, et al. Withania somnifera improves semen quality by regulating reproductive hormone levels and oxidative stress in seminal plasma of infertile males. Fertil Steril 2010;94:989-96. View abstract.
- Ahumada F, Aspee F, Wikman G, Hancke J. Withania somnifera exract. Its effects on arterial blood pressure in anaesthetized dogs. Phytother Res 1991;5:111-14.
- Ambiye VR, Langade D, Dongre S, Aptikar P, Kulkarni M, Dongre A. Clinical Evaluation of the Spermatogenic Activity of the Root Extract of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) in Oligospermic Males: A Pilot Study. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:571420. View abstract.
- Andallu B, Radhika B. Hypoglycemic, diuretic and hypocholesterolemic effect of winter cherry (Withania somnifera, Dunal) root. Indian J Exp Biol 2000;38:607-9. View abstract.
- Archana R, Namasivayam A. Antistressor effect of Withania somnifera. J Ethnopharmacol 1999;64:91-3. View abstract.
- Bhattacharya SK, Satyan KS, Ghosal S. Antioxidant activity of glycowithanolides from Withania somnifera. Indian J Exp Biol 1997;35:236-9. View abstract.
- Biswal BM, Sulaiman SA, Ismail HC, Zakaria H, Musa KI. Effect of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) on the development of chemotherapy-induced fatigue and quality of life in breast cancer patients. Integr Cancer Ther. 2013;12(4):312-22. View abstract.
- Chandrasekhar K, Kapoor J, Anishetty S. A prospective, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of ashwagandha root in reducing stress and anxiety in adults. Indian J Psychol Med. 2012;34(3):255-62. View abstract.
- Chengappa KN, Bowie CR, Schlicht PJ, Fleet D, Brar JS, Jindal R. Randomized placebo-controlled adjunctive study of an extract of withania somnifera for cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2013;74(11):1076-83. View abstract.
- Choudhary D, Bhattacharyya S, Joshi K. Body weight management in adults under chronic stress through treatment with ashwagandha root extract: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med. 2017 Jan;22(1):96-106 View abstract.
- Cooley K, Szczurko O, Perri D, et al. Naturopathic care for anxiety: a randomized controlled trial ISRC TN78958974. PLoS One 2009;4:e6628. View abstract.
- Dasgupta A, Peterson A, Wells A, Actor JK. Effect of Indian Ayurvedic medicine Ashwagandha on measurement of serum digoxin and 11 commonly monitored drugs using immunoassays: study of protein binding and interaction with Digibind. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2007;131:1298-303. View abstract.
- Dasgupta A, Tso G, Wells A. Effect of Asian ginseng, Siberian ginseng, and Indian ayurvedic medicine Ashwagandha on serum digoxin measurement by Digoxin III, a new digoxin immunoassay. J Clin Lab Anal 2008;22:295-301. View abstract.
- Davis L, Kuttan G. Suppressive effect of cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity by Withania somnifera extract in mice. J Ethnopharmacol 1998;62:209-14. View abstract.
- Davis L, Kuttan G. Effect of Withania somnifera on cyclophosphamide-induced urotoxicity. Cancer Lett 2000;148:9-17. View abstract.
- Dongre S, Langade D, Bhattacharyya S. Efficacy and safety of ashwagandha (withania somnifera) root extract in improving sexual function in women: a pilot study. Biomed Res Int 2015;2015:284154.View abstract.
- Jahanbakhsh SP, Manteghi AA, Emami SA, Mahyari S, et al. Evaluation of the efficacy of withania somnifera (ashwagandha) root extract in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Complement Ther Med 2016 Aug;27:25-9.View abstract.
- Katz M, Levine AA, Kol-Degani H, Kav-Venaki L. A compound herbal preparation (CHP) in the treatment of children with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial. J Atten Disord 2010;14:281-91. View abstract.
- Kulkarni RR, Patki PS, Jog VP, et al. Treatment of osteoarthritis with a herbomineral formulation: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. J Ethnopharmacol 1991;33:91-5. View abstract.
- Kumar G, Srivastava A, Sharma SK, Rao TD, Gupta YK. Efficacy and safety evaluation of ayurvedic treatment (ashwagandha powder and sidh makardhwaj) in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a pilot perspective study. Indian J Med Res 2015 Jan;141(1):100-6. View abstract.
- Mishra LC, Singh BB, Dagenais S. Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Withania somnifera (ashwagandha): a review. Altern Med Rev 2000;5:334-46. View abstract.
- Nagashayana N, Sankarankutty P, Nampoothiri MRV, et al. Association of l-DOPA with recovery following Ayurveda medication in Parkinson's Disease. J Neurol Sci 2000;176:124-7. View abstract.
- Panda S, Kar A. Changes in thyroid hormone concentrations after administration of ashwagandha root extract to adult male mice. J Pharm Pharmacol 1998;50:1065-68. View abstract.
- Panda S, Kar A. Withania somnifera and Bauhinia purpurea in the regulation of circulating thyroid hormone concentrations in female mice. J Ethnopharmacol 1999;67:233-39. View abstract.
- Sharma AK, Basu I, Singh S. Efficacy and safety of Ashwagandha root extract in subclinical hypothyroid patients: a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Altern Complement Med. 2018 Mar;24(3):243-248. View abstract.
- Sriranjini SJ, Pal PK, Devidas KV, Ganpathy S. Improvement of balance in progressive degenerative cerebellar ataxias after Ayurvedic therapy: a preliminary report. Neurol India 2009;57:166-71. View abstract.
- Sud Khyati S, Thaker B. A randomized double blind placebo controlled study of ashwagandha on generalized anxiety disorder. Int Ayurvedic Med J 2013;1(5):1-7.
- Upton R, ed. Ashwagandha Root (Withania somnifera): Analytical, quality control, and therapuetic monograph. Santa Cruz, CA: American Herbal Pharmacopoeia 2000:1-25.
Have you ever purchased ASHWAGANDHA?
Did you or will you purchase this product in-store or online?
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
What factors influenced or will influence your purchase? (check all that apply)
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
Do you buy vitamins online or instore?
What factors are most important to you? (check all that apply)