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What is long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation?

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Long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation (A-fib) lasts longer than a year, and doesn’t go away. Medicine and treatment like electrical cardioversion won’t stop the A-fib. Normal heart rhythm will have to be restored with some other kind of treatment, like surgery.

SOURCES: Boriani, G.   , 2016. Vascular Pharmacology

Cunningham, J. P , University of South Carolina, 2012. ursuing Improved Quality of Life In the Atrial Fibrillation Population: Evidence-Based Practice

Holding, S. August 2013 Nursing Times,

Judd, S. , 2014. Omnigraphics

McCabe, P.   , 2015. Journal of Clinical Nursing

Reviewed by Suzanne R. Steinbaum on June 11, 2018

SOURCES: Boriani, G.   , 2016. Vascular Pharmacology

Cunningham, J. P , University of South Carolina, 2012. ursuing Improved Quality of Life In the Atrial Fibrillation Population: Evidence-Based Practice

Holding, S. August 2013 Nursing Times,

Judd, S. , 2014. Omnigraphics

McCabe, P.   , 2015. Journal of Clinical Nursing

Reviewed by Suzanne R. Steinbaum on June 11, 2018

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How is permanent (chronic) atrial fibrillation treated?

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