Reviewed by James
Beckerman, FACC, MD on
October 31, 2017
IMAGE PROVIDED BY:
American Heart Association: “Heart Failure.”
Cleveland Clinic: “Edema.”
Current Opinions in Pharmacology: “Pathophysiology of Water and Sodium Retention: Edematous States with Normal Kidney Function.”
American Academy of Family Physicians: “Edema,” “Edema: Diagnosis and Management.”
Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care: “Causes and Signs of Edema.”
Mayo Clinic: “Edema Causes,” “Leg Swelling,” “Nephrotic Syndrome,” “Pregnancy Week by Week,” “Water Retention: Relieve This Premenstrual Symptom.”
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: “Cirrhosis,” “Your Kidneys and How They Work.”
Palo Alto Medical Foundation: “Ankle Sprains and Calf Strains.”
UptoDate: “Edema (Swelling).”
Vascular Disease Foundation: “Chronic Venous Insufficiency.”
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